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37 terms

CLE level 1 part 1

Study INTRO words as well. Part 1 of level one list for Classical Literacy Exam terms. Study from definition to term.
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Adriatic Sea
the sea separating Italy from Greece
aegis
breastplate; currently it means a source of protection for a group, individual, or idea.
Aeneas/Aeneid
Vergil composed this epic in Latin about the difficulty the main character had in the fall of Troy and then his travels and battles to found Rome. He was the son of Venus and Anchises, son-in-law of King Priam, husband of Creusa then Lavinia in Italy. Father of Ascanius/Iulus. brought Trojan tradition to blend with central Italians
alma mater
nourishing mother; an institution of learning
alpha and omega
the first and last letters respectively of the Greek alphabet
Alps
tall mountain chain spanning France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and Italy.
alter ego
another I; someone who is your exact match in thought or expresssion.
alumna/alumnae
nourished girl/girls; female graduates of an institution.
alumnus/alumni
nourished boy/boys; male graduate/s of an institution.
amor omnia vincit
love conquers all; phrase from Vergil's poem Eclogue 10.
antebellum
before the war; commonly used to describe art, culture, etc. in US before the civil war era.
Apennines
the mountain range running north to south that forms a spine in the center of the Italian peninsula.
bona fide
in good faith. means something that is done in a sincere attempt.
Capitoline Hill
one of the 7 hills of Rome. It was the religious and governing center of the city.
Chimera
a fire breathing monster which was a lioness with serpent for a tail and with a goat in the mid section.
Etruscans
the people who inhabited central Italy before and during the early history of Rome.
ex officio
by virtue of the office; used to show some aspect a person controls by virtue of their role in another office
Excelsior!
ever upward! state motto of New York
fasces
the bundled twigs around an ax which was the symbol of military control held by a dictator. fascists derive their name from this item.
Aesop
Greek writer of fables that explain the benefit or harm of certain character traits in a variety of situations.
alias
a false name used to conceal identity. From the Latin that means another/other.
alibi
in legal terms, it is the attempt to show that a defendant was not present at a crime location because others can place him/her at that time in a different place. From the Latin that means somewhere else.
amphora
a tall, 2 handled vase/urn often used to carry wine.
amphitheater
a large, public open-air arena where entertainment events were held, such as gladiatorial combat.
April 21, 753 BC
legendary date for the founding of Rome
Archimedes
Greek scientist/philosopher who is credited with discovering water displacement to find the volume/density of objects as well as many other scientific and mathematic discoveries. Famously associated with the exclamation "Eureka" (I found it!)"
Atlantis
legendary "city in/under the sea" referenced by Plato, it is a metaphor for a city-state of great power, technological advancement.
bacchanalia
Greco-Roman spring time festivals to honor the god of wine; often accompanied by theatrical performances and became synonymous with drunken debauchery.
bellicose
Latin derivative meaning "warlike, hostile"
Campus Martius
a region in Rome along the Tiber river, home of the Pantheon and Theater of Pompey. North of the Capitoline Hill, this low-lying area was used as a training ground for soldiers.
centaur
a mythic creature with the torso and head of a man, but the body and legs of a horse. known for their battle with the lapiths in the attempted abduction of Hippodamia.
Crete
large island to the south of Greece. Home of the Minoan civilization (early wealthy kingdom in early Greek history), known in myth as the home of King Minos's labyrinth and the Minotaur.
Danaids
50 women who killed their husbands on their wedding night; depicted as being tortured in Hades as having to carry water in leaky jugs thus never completing their task into eternity.
Daphne
nymph who was caught in an argument between Cupid and Apollo. Cupid made Apollo fall in love with her (wtih a golden arrow), but caused her to flee (with a lead arrow). Just when Apollo is about to catch his fleeing lover, she prays for rescue and is turned into a laurel tree.
errare humanum est
Latin for "to err is human" the idea that humans are by nature fallible
et al. / et alii
Latin for "and the others" often used to shorten a list of many names.
etymology
the study of the origin of language, the words themselves, and the change in definition of words.