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A branch of biology dealing with the study of cell components and their function


A viscous fluid surrounded by the plasma membrane


Cellular powerhouse, site of respiration adn ATP formation; contains matrix and cristae.

Middle Iamella

Composed of pectins, occurs between walls of adjacent cells

Plasma membrane

Composed of phospholipid bilayer

Cell Wall

Consists of a primary and secondary; composed in part of cellulose, hemicellulose, adn lignin; provides support, protection, and conduction


Control center of the cells, contains DNA adn protein; provides genetic control for metabloism


Cytoplasmic connections between cells


Fluid filled sac, stores various substances, can vary in size, can occupy up to 90% of mature cell

Eukaryotic cells

Interior of cells made up of membrane-enclosed subunits, called organelles


Organelles double in number, metabolism increases, chromatin is duplicated, protein synthesis occurs, and components of spindle fibers formed.


Pores tha allow movement through cell wall

Endoplasmic reticulum

Site of protein synthesis, composed of a network of membrane channels, consists of rough adn smooth


Site of protein synthesis, composed of protein and RNA to form protein synthesis apparatus, translate DNA code to amino acid chains.

Golgi apparatus

Stacks of flattened membranous sacs or tubes, package proteins, fats, oils, etc. for secretion and storage.


The division of the sytoplasm and the plasma membrane following the division of the nucleus resulting into two cells, each having its own nucleus and sytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane.


The most basic physiological and structural unit of plants.


Type of plastid, contain chlorophylls, xanthophylls, carotenes; site of photosynthesis


Type of plastid, contain diverse pigments (red, orange, yellow), abundant in flowers and fruits.

Prokaryotic cells

No membrane-enclosed organelles.


Type of plastid, colorless, storage sites for oils, starch proteins

Dicot tap root

Large main root with small lateral branches; characteristic of dicots

Monocot fiburous root

Highly branched root that lacks a main central root; characteristic of monocots

Parallel venation

Leaves of monocots

Net venation

Leaves of dicots.

5 plant parts of a leaf

1. Blade
2. Sheath
3. Petiole
4. Mid-vein
5. Hairs

3 leaf types are

1. Obtuse
2. Narrow
3. Concove

3 Leaf arrangements

1. Alternate
2. Opposite
3. Node

4 plant organs and the function

1. Roots-Take up nutrients and water
2. Stem-Support and storage
3. Leaves-Receive sunlight and make photosynthesis
4. Fruit-The mature ovary and all associated parts

8 important roles of plants

1. Food
2. Fiber
3. Oil
4. Decoration
5. Medicine
6. Poison
7. Herb
8. Fuel


Refers to flower induction via exposure to a certain cold temperature for a specific duration of time, gibberellins many be involved. Period and intensity varies with species and cultivar, and 32-50 degrees is the average temp. range required for this process to occur.

Long-Day plants

1. Tall Fescue
2. Oat

Short-Day Plants

1. Cotton
2. Strawberry

Day Neutral Plants

1. Cucumber
2. Tomato

Factors affecting flowering response of plants

1. Light quality
2. Light sensitivity

4 components of a seed and function

1. Seed Coat-Protection
2. Embryo-Seedling plant
3. Endosperm-Storage of foods
4. Enzymes and horomones-Digest food

Seed storage products

1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins

Germination requirements

1. Dry
2. Cold
3. Reduced oxygen
4. Germinable seed

Seed dormancy mechanisms

1. Immature embryo
2. Impermiable seed coat or hardseededness
3. Mechanical resistance

Factors affecting seed quality

1. Length of seed storage
2. Conditions of seed fill3
3. Conditions of seed storage

3 components of a seedling

1. Relical
2. Cyteladones
3. Hypotal


Hypocotyl enlongates adn pulls cotyledons above ground.


Hypocotyl does not expand, only epicotyl emerges.

Plant growth

Product of living cells, with all their myraid metabolic processes.

Stages of plant development

1. Seed germination
2. Vegetative growth
3. Initiation and maturation of reproductive organs and tissues
4. Fertilization
5. Seed development
6. Scenescence and Death

1. Light
2. Gases
3. Water
4. Oxygen

4 environmental factors that affect plant groth and development

Heliotropic movements

Plants move in ways to get better sun.

Light angle of incidence

90 degrees. Adjustment to the way the sun is shining.

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