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Plant Science Exams

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Cytology
A branch of biology dealing with the study of cell components and their function
Cytoplasm
A viscous fluid surrounded by the plasma membrane
Mitochondria
Cellular powerhouse, site of respiration adn ATP formation; contains matrix and cristae.
Middle Iamella
Composed of pectins, occurs between walls of adjacent cells
Plasma membrane
Composed of phospholipid bilayer
Cell Wall
Consists of a primary and secondary; composed in part of cellulose, hemicellulose, adn lignin; provides support, protection, and conduction
Nucleus
Control center of the cells, contains DNA adn protein; provides genetic control for metabloism
Plasmodemata
Cytoplasmic connections between cells
Vacuole
Fluid filled sac, stores various substances, can vary in size, can occupy up to 90% of mature cell
Eukaryotic cells
Interior of cells made up of membrane-enclosed subunits, called organelles
Interphase
Organelles double in number, metabolism increases, chromatin is duplicated, protein synthesis occurs, and components of spindle fibers formed.
Pits
Pores tha allow movement through cell wall
Endoplasmic reticulum
Site of protein synthesis, composed of a network of membrane channels, consists of rough adn smooth
Ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis, composed of protein and RNA to form protein synthesis apparatus, translate DNA code to amino acid chains.
Golgi apparatus
Stacks of flattened membranous sacs or tubes, package proteins, fats, oils, etc. for secretion and storage.
Cytokinesis
The division of the sytoplasm and the plasma membrane following the division of the nucleus resulting into two cells, each having its own nucleus and sytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane.
Cells
The most basic physiological and structural unit of plants.
Chloroplasts
Type of plastid, contain chlorophylls, xanthophylls, carotenes; site of photosynthesis
Chromoplasts
Type of plastid, contain diverse pigments (red, orange, yellow), abundant in flowers and fruits.
Prokaryotic cells
No membrane-enclosed organelles.
Leucoplasts
Type of plastid, colorless, storage sites for oils, starch proteins
Dicot tap root
Large main root with small lateral branches; characteristic of dicots
Monocot fiburous root
Highly branched root that lacks a main central root; characteristic of monocots
Parallel venation
Leaves of monocots
Net venation
Leaves of dicots.
5 plant parts of a leaf
1. Blade
2. Sheath
3. Petiole
4. Mid-vein
5. Hairs
3 leaf types are
1. Obtuse
2. Narrow
3. Concove
3 Leaf arrangements
1. Alternate
2. Opposite
3. Node
4 plant organs and the function
1. Roots-Take up nutrients and water
2. Stem-Support and storage
3. Leaves-Receive sunlight and make photosynthesis
4. Fruit-The mature ovary and all associated parts
8 important roles of plants
1. Food
2. Fiber
3. Oil
4. Decoration
5. Medicine
6. Poison
7. Herb
8. Fuel
Venelization
Refers to flower induction via exposure to a certain cold temperature for a specific duration of time, gibberellins many be involved. Period and intensity varies with species and cultivar, and 32-50 degrees is the average temp. range required for this process to occur.
Long-Day plants
1. Tall Fescue
2. Oat
Short-Day Plants
1. Cotton
2. Strawberry
Day Neutral Plants
1. Cucumber
2. Tomato
Factors affecting flowering response of plants
1. Light quality
2. Light sensitivity
4 components of a seed and function
1. Seed Coat-Protection
2. Embryo-Seedling plant
3. Endosperm-Storage of foods
4. Enzymes and horomones-Digest food
Seed storage products
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
Germination requirements
1. Dry
2. Cold
3. Reduced oxygen
4. Germinable seed
Seed dormancy mechanisms
1. Immature embryo
2. Impermiable seed coat or hardseededness
3. Mechanical resistance
Factors affecting seed quality
1. Length of seed storage
2. Conditions of seed fill3
3. Conditions of seed storage
3 components of a seedling
1. Relical
2. Cyteladones
3. Hypotal
Epigeous
Hypocotyl enlongates adn pulls cotyledons above ground.
Hypogeous
Hypocotyl does not expand, only epicotyl emerges.
Plant growth
Product of living cells, with all their myraid metabolic processes.
Stages of plant development
1. Seed germination
2. Vegetative growth
3. Initiation and maturation of reproductive organs and tissues
4. Fertilization
5. Seed development
6. Scenescence and Death
1. Light
2. Gases
3. Water
4. Oxygen
4 environmental factors that affect plant groth and development
Heliotropic movements
Plants move in ways to get better sun.
Light angle of incidence
90 degrees. Adjustment to the way the sun is shining.