Terms in this set (106)
Blooms Taxonomy of educational objectives measures cognitive ability at what level?
receiving, responding, valuing, organizing and Characterizing
what are the levels of the effective domain in blooms taxonomy
The lowest level; the student passively pays attention. Without this level no learning can occur. Receiving is about the student's memory and recognition as well
The student actively participates in the learning process, not only attends to a stimulus; the student also reacts in some way
The student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon, or piece of information. The student associates a value or some values to the knowledge he acquired.
The student can put together different values, information, and ideas and accommodate them within his/her own schema; comparing, relating and elaborating on what has been learned.
The student holds a particular value or belief that now exerts influence on his/her behavior so that it becomes a characteristic
Skills in the affective domain
describe the way people react emotionally and their ability to feel other living things' pain or joy. Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotion, and feelings.
There are five levels in the affective domain moving through the lowest order processes to the highest:
affective domain-characterizing by value complex
students share personal interests as a group activity "ice breaker" this is an example of which taxonomy
learning outcome statement
Learning outcomes describe what students are able to demonstrate in terms
of knowledge, skills, and values upon completion of a course
Clear articulation of learning outcomes
serves as the
foundation to evaluating the effectiveness of the teaching and learning
are tools and
techniques used to determine the extent to which the stated learning
outcomes are achieved. A variety of methods, qualitative and quantitative,
direct and indirect, should be used
Examples of Direct Assessment Methods:
Grading with scoring rubrics*
Writing proficiency exams
Direct assessment is often preferred for assessing language for a number of reasons:
•increased potential for communicative interaction,
•better evidence for language use,
•more motivating for students, and
Disadvantages of Direct Assessment
•some inauthenticity in interview structure,
•time-consuming to conduct and score, and
•difficulty in finding the best method for scoring
Examples of direct assessment might include
A direct method
is based on a sample of actual student work, including reports, exams,
demonstrations, performances, and completed works, requires students to produce work so that
reviewers can assess how well students meet expectations.
The strength of direct measurement
is that faculty members are capturing a sample
of what students can do, which can be very strong evidence of student learning.
A possible weakness of direct measurement
is that not everything can be
demonstrated in a direct way, such as values, perceptions, feelings, and attitudes.
An indirect method
is based upon a report of perceived student learning. Indirect measures of
assessment provide opportunities for students to reflect on their learning, and inform the
reviewers their perceptions of their learning experience
The strength of indirect methods
is that they could be helpful in interpreting the
findings of direct methods. Also it can assess certain implicit qualities of student
learning, such as values, feelings, perceptions, and attitudes, from a variety of
The weakness of indirect measures
is that they are not as useful in identifying
specific knowledge and skills deficiencies. Indirect measures are not as strong as
direct measures because self report is used very often and instructors have to make
assumptions about what exactly the self-report means. For example, if students
report that they have attained a particular learning goal, how do we know that their
report is accurate?
Direct Methods of Assessment:
Pre and posttests
Multiple-choice test question
Essay test question
Course-embedded assessment (e.g., homework assignment; essays)
Class project (individual or group)
Performance piece (e.g., musical recital)
Indirect Methods of Assessment:
1. Exit interviews
o Departmental survey
o Alumni survey
o Employer survey
o Survey of current students
o Survey of faculty members
o Survey of internship supervisors
o Survey of graduates
o Survey of employers
o Survey of transfer institutions
3. Focus groups
4. Job placement statistics
5. Graduation and retention rates
6. Percentage of students who study abroad
7. Classroom Assessment Techniques such as "muddiest point"
misconception of objective writing : "Students will be able to" (or SWBAT)
we have created an objective, but "SWBAT create a diorama of an African game reserve," is vastly different from "SWBAT understand the principle of conservation." One objective focuses on an activity—what the teacher will teach that day. The other focuses on what students will be learning.
examples of types of objectives
create behavioral objectives, mastery objectives, essential questions, thinking objectives, understanding goals, performance objectives, criterion-referenced objectives, or some combination of all of the above. The problem is that all of them make some sense and there are compelling reasons for each of them.
what is peer tutoring?
an intervention in which students work in pairs to master academic skills or content.
examples of peer tutoring
more skilled students may be paired with less skilled students. In this case, students with stronger skills may provide the first responses, providing a model for the less skilled partner. In other cases, the teacher may decide to pair students of similar ability and have them alternate tutoring roles, which is sometimes referred to as reciprocal peer tutoring.
in which students work collaboratively in groups.
( social interaction in the development of cognition )
learning is enhanced and extended by interactions with significant others
student centered learning
individualized and collaborative
• experiential, building on prior learning
• self-managed and cumulative
• directed to higher-order problem solving.
the importance of the learner being actively involved in the learning process
examples of Constructivism
Students learn about a subject through the experience of problem solving
Jigsaw Classroom where students become "experts" on one part of a group project and teach it to the others in their group
Learning is viewed as active
Learners with different skills and backgrounds are encouraged to collaborate in tasks and discussions to arrive at a shared understanding of the truth
Some interactive learning approaches include:
reciprocal teaching, peer collaboration, cognitive apprenticeship, problem-based instruction, web quests, and anchored instruction
is based on constructivist learning theory. Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving information. Learners are the makers of meaning and knowledge. Constructivist teaching fosters critical thinking, and creates motivated and independent learners. This theoretical framework holds that learning always builds upon knowledge that a student already knows; this prior knowledge is called a schema. Because all learning is filtered through pre-existing schemata, constructivists suggest that learning is more effective when a student is actively engaged in the learning process rather than attempting to receive knowledge passively.
Piaget's role in the constructivist teaching
suggest that we learn by expanding our knowledge by experiences which are generated through play from infancy to adulthood which are necessary for learning.
Constructivist learning theory
( Dewey and Piaget )
all knowledge is constructed from a base of prior knowledge. Children are not a blank slate and knowledge cannot be imparted without the child making sense of it according to his or her current conceptions. Therefore children learn best when they are allowed to construct a personal understanding based on experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.
David Jonassen identified three major roles to support students in constructivist learning environments
Oral discussions. "focus" question and allows an open discussion
KWL(H) Chart (What we know, What we want to know, What we have learned, How we know it)
a good assessment technique as it shows the teacher the progress of the student throughout the course of study.
list the concepts and ideas relating to a topic.
Hands-on activities.Teachers can use a checklist and observation to assess student success with the particular material.
Pre-testing. This allows a teacher to determine what knowledge students bring to a new topic and thus will be helpful in directing the course of study
self assessment student survey, clearest/ muddiest,
assessment based on student behaviors
Direct - The assessment is based on an analysis of student behaviors or products in which
they demonstrate how well they have mastered learning outcomes.
formative assessment could be either a direct or indirect method of assessment.
assessment based on observation either teacher, student or
2. Indirect - The assessment is based on an analysis of reported perceptions about student
mastery of learning outcomes. The perceptions may be self-reports by students, or they may
be made by others, such as alumni, fieldwork supervisors, employers, or faculty.
formative assessment could be either a direct or indirect method of assessment.
The summative assessment should always be a direct method of assessment,
direct or indirect assessment
the formative assessment can be either direct or indirect assessment
3 learning styles
• Turn notes into pictures, charts, or maps
• Retains information through hearing and speaking
Students passively receive information
acquisition of knowledge outside the
context in which it will be used
Professor's role is to be primary information giver and
Teaching and assessing are separate
Assessment is used to monitor learning
Students are actively involved
using and communicating knowledge
problems in real-life contexts
Professor's role is to coach and facilitate
Professor and students evaluate learning together
Teaching and assessing are intertwined
Assessment is used to promote and diagnose
Assignments for formative purposes
Community service learning
Online, asynchronous, self-directed learning
effective direct instruction
teach basic skills necessary for more complex activities
cooperative learning activity
promotes better learning, improves student motivation, and increases enjoyment of the learning experience.
Team Accelerated instruction activity TAI
homogenous teams for a Team Accelerated instruction activity TAI
students who have difficulty in processing complex concepts
accommodation for students who have trouble writing... someone will write out answer to test for example
students who struggle with mathematics
students who struggle in reading
areas of language use
primarily address why and how a person communicates
the branch of linguistics and logic concerned with meaning.
reflect a child's understanding of how his or her community organizes content meaning linguistically for representation in the sentences, phrases, and words
the way in which words are put together to form phrases, clauses, or sentences
eight types of learning styles, or intelligences, defined in Howard Gardner's theory
Verbal Linguistic Learning Style ((Gardner's eight))
learn best when taught using spoken or written materials. They prefer activities that are based on language reasoning rather than abstract visual information.
Math word problems are more appealing to verbal linguistic learners than solving equations. They usually enjoy written projects, speech and drama classes, debate, language classes, and journalism. ((Gardner's eight))
Mathematical Logical learning style
People with mathematical logical learning styles learn best when taught using visual materials, computers, statistical and analytical programs, and hands on projects. They prefer structured, goal-oriented activities that are based on math reasoning rather than less structured, creative activities with inexact learning goals. Mathematical logical learners would find a statistical study more appealing than analyzing literature or keeping a journal. ((Gardner's eight))
musical learning styles ((Gardner's eight))
learn best when taught using spoken instruction and auditory media. Musically learning styled students have good auditory memory and may respond well to jingles and rhymes to help memorize information they may otherwise struggle with. ((Gardner's eight))
visual spatial learning style ((Gardner's eight))
learn best when taught using written, modeled, or diagrammed instruction and visual media. Visually and spatially talented students have good visual memory for details
bodily kinesthetic learning styles ((Gardner's eight))
learn best when they are permitted to use their tactile senses and fine and gross motor movement as part of the learning process. They often prefer direct involvement with material they are learning than worksheets or reading from a book. Bodily kinesthetic learning style students understand and remember material longer when they use it in an active way.
Interpersonal learning styles ((Gardner's eight))
People with interpersonal learning styles learn best when they are permitted to use their people senses as part of the learning process. They often prefer direct involvement with others in group projects in school or within the larger community. They are stimulated by dialog with students and adults and seem to have a strong sense of intuition regarding others' opinions and preferences. Interpersonal learners are good at reading people and are good at getting to the root cause of communication problems.
refer to a person's ability to interact with and understand other people and social situations.
naturistic learning styles
learn best when they are directly and actively involved with hands-on tasks with plants and animals. They may be interested in etymology and leaf collecting projects, assisting with school landscaping, or maintaining a school greenhouse or bird sanctuary. They prefer reading materials such as outdoor living books and magazines. They may enjoy fiction and non-fiction books with nature and survival themes. ((Gardner's eight))
existential learning styles ((Gardner's eight))
Existential learning styled people are highly introspective and attuned to their inner selves.
People with existential learning styles learn best when they have opportunities to express their preferences and act on their opinions. They enjoy managing their own learning and in most cases are good at evaluating their own performance. The typically work well independently and are motivated to do well. On the negative side, however, they may have difficulty accepting their own mistakes and conforming to others' expectations. ((Gardner's eight))
knowledge telling, kwl chars
help students understand key material and "show what they know" in ways that match their language proficiency levels.
how can you ensure ELL are demonstrating what they know??
Ongoing, informal assessment is vitally important to matching instruction to students' changing needs.
Small group instruction
Providing ELLs with alternative ways of accessing key content
charts, books written in their first language, simplified text written by the teacher, discussion, etc.
allows them to learn the same material as other students as they continue to develop their English language skills.
Experiential learning (reflective practice)
learning through reflection on doing... making a choice on what is learned, rather than passively being taught...using a computer to research, going to the library to choose the book to read vs having the teacher tell you read this... that's reflective or experiential learning in essence
definition of Backward design
is a method of designing educational curriculum by setting goals before choosing instructional methods and forms of assessment. Backward design of curriculum typically involves three stages
three stages of backward design
identify the results desired
determine acceptable levels of evidence that support that the desired results have occurred
design activities that will make desired results happen
backward design explanation
In backward design, the educator starts with goals, creates or plans out assessments and finally makes lesson plans. Supporters of backward design liken the process to using a "road map".
In this case, the destination is chosen first and then the road map is used to plan the trip to the desired destination.
idea is to teach toward the "end point" or learning goals, which typically ensures that content taught remains focused and organized.
The educator is able to focus on addressing what the students need to learn, what data can be collected to show that the students have learned the desired outcomes (or learning standards) and how to ensure the students will learn. Although backward design is based on the same components of the ADDIE model, backward design is a condensed version of these components with far less flexibility
Curriculum is based on
benchmark standards deemed important by the government.
behavioral, cognitive or constructivist
traditional approach vs constructivist to learning
constructivist: There is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas.
This is contrary to the traditional classroom in which students work primarily alone, learning is achieved through repetition, and the subjects are strictly adhered to and are guided by a textbook
highly structured, teacher directed, maximizes learning time
Best for teaching concepts necessary to move on to bigger concepts
observable skills and behaviors
social interaction theory
an explanation of language development emphasizing the role of social interaction between the developing child and linguistically knowledgeable adults. It is based largely on the socio-cultural theories of Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky.
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
think of driving a car... the middle lane is learning.. the lane next to it is boredom and the other side is confusion... keep learning between learning and confusion... learning is best when in the zone between what the child knows and doesn't know yet... keeps them engaged.
is distinguished from other Internet-based research by three characteristics. First, it is classroom-based. Second, it emphasizes higher-order thinking (such as analysis, creativity, or criticism) rather than just acquiring information. And third, the teacher preselects the sources, emphasizing information use rather than information gathering. Finally, though solo WebQuests are not unknown, most WebQuests are group work with the task frequently being split into roles
educator starts with goals, assessments and finally makes lesson plans.
identify outcomes, assess and plan instruction
critical thinking and problem solving
through authentic assessment, cooperative learning, scaffolding, and technology integration
analysis , synthesis and evaluation
physical components of an effective learning environment
secure learning environment:
seating arrangements, smooth transitions
Example moving from rug area to desks is done quietly fast and with minimal talking... students know what to expect and feel safe
one way listening
passive listening, watching tv or listening to the radio
two way listening
involves listener in an exchange of information, listeners provide feedback or ask questions. non verbal feedback also comes form students in the form of a smile of understanding or a frown of confusion ect ... two way listening may include paraphrasing... restating in your own words...
listening with feeling with an attempt to experience what the speaker is feeling.
what do pauses and silences indicate?
The periods of speech associated with higher silent pause times contained more instances of filled pauses ("ums" and "erhs") indicated that young children are "wrestling with the basic tools of speech."
These results were interpreted to mean that speakers were engaged in more processing during periods of higher pause time than during periods of lower pause time.
first stage in developing writing skills in language
egbdf every good boy does fine to remember notes in music or other strategies to remember
the basic units of sound in a language.
the smallest units of meaning in a language
the rules of grammar that determine how words are ordered within sentences or phrases to form meaningful expressions
the set of rules governing the meaning of words
apply to phonics for English learners:
phonics and other word recognition strategies are a means to an end: comprehension.
Provide ample time for students to read and write
allowing students to develop their own understanding of sound/symbol
Informally assess phonics and word recognition skills students already use in writing and reading; then focus on teaching new skills that will promote independence.
writing prompts that require students to think about various perspectives
Role of the Writer: Who are you as the writer? A movie star? The President? A plant?
Audience: To whom are you writing? A senator? Yourself? A company?
Format: In what format are you writing? A diary entry? A newspaper? A love letter?
Topic: What are you writing about?