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28 terms

CLE Level 1 part 3

Study INTRO words as well. Part 3 of level one list for Classical Literacy Exam terms. Study from definition to term
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Pan
a rustic pagan god who was part man, part goat (legs and horns). He frolicked in the woods and was known for being mischievous
patrician
a member of one of the original aristocratic families of Rome.
pax vobiscum
peace (be) with you. a phrase of well-wishing from the Catholic Liturgy (Mass)
per annum
each year, yearly
per capita
by heads, a method of accounting based on the population of an area
per diem
by day. a daily allowance, especially for food, lodging, or supplies.
p.o./per os
by mouth; pharmaceutical instructions for the proper way to take a medicine
persona non grata
a not pleasing person
Ph.D./philosophiae Doctor
the advanced degree in the liberal arts or sciences.
plebeian
the bulk of the Roman citizenry. Non-aristocratic citizens. Now it means someone of the lowest social order.
polytheism
religious system characterized by belief in numerous gods.
pontifex maximus
chief priest of the Roman government. means greatest bridge maker, meaning that between man and the gods. Eventually was assumed as a role of the emperor. Today, the Pope of the Roman Catholic church is referred to as a pontifex.
pro tempore
for a time. means a temporary situation.
puerile
boyish or childish
Punic wars
a series of three wars fought by Rome against Carthage 264-146 BC. Hannibal famously led elephants against Rome in the second Punic war, was stalled by Fabius in Italy until Scipio Africanus could attack in Carthage thus recalling Hannibal to defend his home. Major battles include Cannae and Zama.
rara avis
a rare bird; someone eccentric and strange
rostra or rostrum
the beak of a ship; brought into Rome and became a speakers' platform in the center of the Forum. came from a ship from the battle of Antium in the mid 4th century BC.
Saturnalia
a winters pagan festival in honor of Saturn where pranks and mischief was common. Gifts were exchanged, feasts eaten, and commonly slaves and masters exchanged roles in comic fashion.
satyr
half man/goat creatures which were mischievous and frolicked in the woods. Played the pan flute. were associated with silly interludes between the more serious trilogies of tragedies in Greece.
sedentary
marked by an inactive lifestyle, often at rest or seated.
plebiscite
derivative meaning a vote taken by commoners on a proposal from a monarchy or governing body.
Peloponnesus
the southern area of Greece connected to the mainland by the isthmus of Corinth. Where Sparta, Mycenae, and Olympia were located.
Pompey
general and politician from the last century BC. put down revolts by Spartacus and Mediterranean pirates. Subdued Spain. part of the first triumvirate with Caesar and Crassus, he was ultimately Caesar's rival in civil wars ending at the battle of Pharsalus in Greece. Not of the same patrician rank as Caesar. Preferred his nickname "Magnus" One of many dictators in the Late Roman Republic.
posthumous
derivative meaning "occurring after death" such as the birth of a child after the father's death, or the publishing of material after the author's death. derived from the Latin meaning "after and ground
Priam
legendary last king of Troy. father of Hector who pleaded with Achilles for the body after Hector's death. was eventually killed within his palace after the Trojan horse was brought into the city. killed by Neoptolemus/Pyrrhus, son of Achilles. married to Hecuba, supposedly had over 50 sons and daughters
pulchritude
derivative that means "beauty" from the Latin adjective that means beautiful
Romance languages
the languages directly derived from Latin: Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Romanian.
Rubicon
a river in north central Italy that was the dividing line between the provinces and Rome proper. It was also the mark set where legions must be disbanded before marching any closer to Rome for the fear revolution. Caesar famously crossed this river uttering the phrase "alea iacta est" the die is cast. Now it represents the idea of a line that marks a place after which there is no turning back.