a rustic pagan god who was part man, part goat (legs and horns). He frolicked in the woods and was known for being mischievous
the bulk of the Roman citizenry. Non-aristocratic citizens. Now it means someone of the lowest social order.
chief priest of the Roman government. means greatest bridge maker, meaning that between man and the gods. Eventually was assumed as a role of the emperor. Today, the Pope of the Roman Catholic church is referred to as a pontifex.
a series of three wars fought by Rome against Carthage 264-146 BC. Hannibal famously led elephants against Rome in the second Punic war, was stalled by Fabius in Italy until Scipio Africanus could attack in Carthage thus recalling Hannibal to defend his home. Major battles include Cannae and Zama.
rostra or rostrum
the beak of a ship; brought into Rome and became a speakers' platform in the center of the Forum. came from a ship from the battle of Antium in the mid 4th century BC.
a winters pagan festival in honor of Saturn where pranks and mischief was common. Gifts were exchanged, feasts eaten, and commonly slaves and masters exchanged roles in comic fashion.
half man/goat creatures which were mischievous and frolicked in the woods. Played the pan flute. were associated with silly interludes between the more serious trilogies of tragedies in Greece.
derivative meaning a vote taken by commoners on a proposal from a monarchy or governing body.
the southern area of Greece connected to the mainland by the isthmus of Corinth. Where Sparta, Mycenae, and Olympia were located.
general and politician from the last century BC. put down revolts by Spartacus and Mediterranean pirates. Subdued Spain. part of the first triumvirate with Caesar and Crassus, he was ultimately Caesar's rival in civil wars ending at the battle of Pharsalus in Greece. Not of the same patrician rank as Caesar. Preferred his nickname "Magnus" One of many dictators in the Late Roman Republic.
derivative meaning "occurring after death" such as the birth of a child after the father's death, or the publishing of material after the author's death. derived from the Latin meaning "after and ground
legendary last king of Troy. father of Hector who pleaded with Achilles for the body after Hector's death. was eventually killed within his palace after the Trojan horse was brought into the city. killed by Neoptolemus/Pyrrhus, son of Achilles. married to Hecuba, supposedly had over 50 sons and daughters
the languages directly derived from Latin: Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Romanian.
a river in north central Italy that was the dividing line between the provinces and Rome proper. It was also the mark set where legions must be disbanded before marching any closer to Rome for the fear revolution. Caesar famously crossed this river uttering the phrase "alea iacta est" the die is cast. Now it represents the idea of a line that marks a place after which there is no turning back.