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Study INTRO words as well. Part 3 of level one list for Classical Literacy Exam terms. Study from definition to term


a rustic pagan god who was part man, part goat (legs and horns). He frolicked in the woods and was known for being mischievous


a member of one of the original aristocratic families of Rome.

pax vobiscum

peace (be) with you. a phrase of well-wishing from the Catholic Liturgy (Mass)

per annum

each year, yearly

per capita

by heads, a method of accounting based on the population of an area

per diem

by day. a daily allowance, especially for food, lodging, or supplies.

p.o./per os

by mouth; pharmaceutical instructions for the proper way to take a medicine

persona non grata

a not pleasing person

Ph.D./philosophiae Doctor

the advanced degree in the liberal arts or sciences.


the bulk of the Roman citizenry. Non-aristocratic citizens. Now it means someone of the lowest social order.


religious system characterized by belief in numerous gods.

pontifex maximus

chief priest of the Roman government. means greatest bridge maker, meaning that between man and the gods. Eventually was assumed as a role of the emperor. Today, the Pope of the Roman Catholic church is referred to as a pontifex.

pro tempore

for a time. means a temporary situation.


boyish or childish

Punic wars

a series of three wars fought by Rome against Carthage 264-146 BC. Hannibal famously led elephants against Rome in the second Punic war, was stalled by Fabius in Italy until Scipio Africanus could attack in Carthage thus recalling Hannibal to defend his home. Major battles include Cannae and Zama.

rara avis

a rare bird; someone eccentric and strange

rostra or rostrum

the beak of a ship; brought into Rome and became a speakers' platform in the center of the Forum. came from a ship from the battle of Antium in the mid 4th century BC.


a winters pagan festival in honor of Saturn where pranks and mischief was common. Gifts were exchanged, feasts eaten, and commonly slaves and masters exchanged roles in comic fashion.


half man/goat creatures which were mischievous and frolicked in the woods. Played the pan flute. were associated with silly interludes between the more serious trilogies of tragedies in Greece.


marked by an inactive lifestyle, often at rest or seated.


derivative meaning a vote taken by commoners on a proposal from a monarchy or governing body.


the southern area of Greece connected to the mainland by the isthmus of Corinth. Where Sparta, Mycenae, and Olympia were located.


general and politician from the last century BC. put down revolts by Spartacus and Mediterranean pirates. Subdued Spain. part of the first triumvirate with Caesar and Crassus, he was ultimately Caesar's rival in civil wars ending at the battle of Pharsalus in Greece. Not of the same patrician rank as Caesar. Preferred his nickname "Magnus" One of many dictators in the Late Roman Republic.


derivative meaning "occurring after death" such as the birth of a child after the father's death, or the publishing of material after the author's death. derived from the Latin meaning "after and ground


legendary last king of Troy. father of Hector who pleaded with Achilles for the body after Hector's death. was eventually killed within his palace after the Trojan horse was brought into the city. killed by Neoptolemus/Pyrrhus, son of Achilles. married to Hecuba, supposedly had over 50 sons and daughters


derivative that means "beauty" from the Latin adjective that means beautiful

Romance languages

the languages directly derived from Latin: Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Romanian.


a river in north central Italy that was the dividing line between the provinces and Rome proper. It was also the mark set where legions must be disbanded before marching any closer to Rome for the fear revolution. Caesar famously crossed this river uttering the phrase "alea iacta est" the die is cast. Now it represents the idea of a line that marks a place after which there is no turning back.

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