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APUSH Chapter 28 Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt
Terms in this set (59)
Middle Class reform movement to change relations between government, business and people. Increased role of government in society.
Their goals were to stop monopolies, corruption, inefficiency, and fight for social injustice.
Closely tied to feminism. Roots were in Greenback and Populist parties
progressive writer of "How the Other Half Lives" about the living conditions of poor in the NY slums
Promoted a brand of progressivism based on Christian teachings. They used church doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions for the urban poor.
progressive journalists who used well researched articles in an attempt to inspire change in society by making public aware of social problems and strengthen democracy.
They didn't offer solutions to problems. They had no faith in politicians leading the charge, but wanted to get the story out to the public. They believed the cure for societal ills was democracy and that the public conscience would eventually remedy the problems.
muckraking journalist for McClure's magazine. Wrote "The Shame of the Cities" which unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government.
Leading muckraker and editor of McClure's Magazine, exposed corruption of the oil industry in "A History of Standard Oil" (1904).
muckraker wrote for Cosmopolitan titled "The Treason of the Senate" said Senators represented railroads and trusts, not people.
Ray Stannard Baker
muckraker journalist for McClure's. Wrote "Following the Color Line" about poverty and misfortunes of the black women in the south. He was the first prominent journalist to write on race relations in the South- "The Clashes of the Races in a Southern City."
Dr. Harvey Wiley criticized patent medicines, which were largely unregulated, habit-forming, and normally did more bad than good.
He and his "Poison Squad" used themselves as guinea pigs for experiments.
Who were the Progressives? What were their goals?
A broadly diverse group of reformers -- militarists, pacifists, suffragists, etc. -- originated from the middle-class.
a) to use the state's power to curb trusts
b) halt the socialist threat by improving conditions of life.
To regain power that had slipped into the hands of those of "interest" (Political bosses, captains of industry/business).
They supported women's suffrage.
Sought to strengthen democracy using:
1. Direct Primaries
2. Initiatives -- voters could propose legislation
3. Referendum -- voters would vote on referendums to determine if they would become law
4. Recall -- the ability to remove an elected official from office
5. Australian ballot -- a secret ballot for voting
6. Direct election of senators by the people.
Had support of both Republicans and Democrats.
City Manager System
progressive reform of city government designed to remove politics from local government and make it more efficient.
Progressive reform to increase democracy. 1913 constitutional amendment allowing American voters to directly elect US senators. At the time, state legislators, not the people, chose U.S. senators.
progressive reform to increase democracy by allowing voters to suggest new laws
progressive reform to increase democracy by allowing voters to vote on whether or not a law should be passed
Why did socialists believe the US was primed for socialism?
1. Industrial revolution exasperated conflict between Capitalists and Workers
----Violent labor upheavals - Homestead, Haymarket, and Pullman strikes
2. Karl Marx saw America as the country where capitalism had developed more shamelessly than elsewhere, thus setting the stage for the final conflict that would yield socialist utopia.
Why didn't Socialism take hold in the United States?
1. The US did not have a long history of "bowing before the upper-class" like European countries had.
2. The "safety-valve" -The mobility of the workforce and their ability to walk away from oppressive employers.
3. American workers' high standard of living - there was plenty of food and shelter
4. The US was "born free" and was reaping the rewards of a democratic society -- there was no need to change.
progressive reform to increase democracy that allowed voters to remove a politician from office before the term of office was over
Gov. Robert LaFollette
Wisconsin governor was the Progressive leader for states. Wisconsin was able to grab power back from the big businesses (lumber & railroads) and return it to the people.
Created settlement houses. Led temperance movement. Argued to end child labor and disease in slums. Worked to improve health and food safety. Argued for pensions for mothers and children
Organization created by middle class women to help the poor. Instruction given in English, getting a job, provided childcare etc. First Settlement House was Hull House in Chicago by Jane Addams (1889). Became centers for reform in the women's and labor movements.
Muller v Oregon (1908)
A case ruled Constitutional to set limits on the number of hours a woman could work.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory (1911)
Fire in New York factory where 146 people, mostly women died because the doors were locked. Led to call for federal regulation and improved working conditions to protect workers.
Lochner v New York (1905)
Stated NY law limiting hours a baker could work was unconstitutional because it interfered with the freedom of contract.
Women's Christian Temperance Movement
This women's union called for the national prohibition of alcohol. Led by Frances E. Willard and Carrie A. Nation, the movement culminated in 1919 with the 18th Amendment (AKA Prohibition) that banned alcohol's sale, consumption, and possession
Teddy Roosevelt progressive reform program that called for (a) control of corporations, (b) consumer protection, and (c) conservation of natural resources. It opposed special treatment for large capitalists and trusts.
Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)
United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened an energy crisis.
Teddy Roosevelt had no authority but summoned both sides to White House and proposed arbitration; the miners accepted the proposal, but the owners declined.
Roosevelt threatened to send military to take over the mines. First time government opposed big business
Department of Commerce and Labor
Federal department (cabinet level body) established in 1903 by Roosevelt. Designed to settle problems between labor and capitalists. It included the Bureau of Corporations, which was authorized to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce.
Elkins Act (1903)
gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads. It banned and prosecuted rebates awarded by railroaders.
The ICC now had the tools to address complaints of shippers, to nullify existing rates and stipulate maximum rates.
Hepburn Act (1906)
This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to place restrictions on free passes handed out by railroads.
Northern Securities Decision
Roosevelt busted up the Northern Securities trust, which controlled the railroads in the NW. The Supreme Court upheld the Northern Securities decision resulting in the company's dissolution, which angered Wall Street but furthered TR's trust-buster image.
Monopolies busted by Roosevelt
Roosevelt attacked some 40 trusts, including busting the beef, sugar, fertilizer, and harvester trusts
Why did Roosevelt trust bust? What was his real purpose in breaking up big business?
TR concluded, however that there were "good trusts" and there were "bad trusts." The bad trusts had to go.
1. His real purpose was symbolic to prove conclusively that that the gov't, not private business ruled the country.
2. He believed in regulating not fragmenting, the big business companies.
3. The threat of dissolution would make the captains of industry more amendable to federal regulations.
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
(1906) : Documented the filthy conditions of the meat packing industry. Revealed the plight of the workers.
But, the real effect was to gross out America and initiate action in Congress.
His book motivated Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act (1906). Henceforth meat would be inspected by the U.S.D.A.
The Pure Food and Drug Act was also passed. Its goal was to ensure proper labeling of food and drugs and to prevent tampering.
Meat Inspection Act 1906
The preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be inspected from corral to can by the United States Department of Agriculture
Pure Food and Drug Act
Designed to prevent contamination, tampering, and mislabeling of food and pharmaceuticals.
What 4 Acts did Congress make law to support environmental conservation?
Desert Land Act (1877). It sold desert land at a cheap rate on the promise the land would be irrigated.
The Forest Reserve Act (1891) gave the president permission to set aside land as parks and reserves. Millions of acres of old-growth forests were preserved under this authority.
The Carey Act (1894) gave federal land to the states, again on the promise of irrigation.
Newlands Act (1902) passed to begin massive irrigation projects out West. The Roosevelt Dam (on Arizona's Salt River) and dozens of other western dams created reservoirs to water, and bring life to, the arid land.
How do we know that Roosevelt was a conservationist?
Roosevelt's presidency truly started a new era in conservation and was an enduring tangible achievement of his presidency.
1. Roosevelt was a consummate outdoorsman, was very concerned about the nation's timber and mineral depletion, and started the conservation movement with action.
2. Signed into law 4 environmental conservation laws
3. Roosevelt set aside 125 million acres of forest land (3 times the acreage of his 3 predecessors). Large quantities of land were also set aside for coal and water reserves.
4. Purely as an example, he had no White House Christmas tree in 1902.
Evidence that public shared Roosevelt's concern and passion for nature.
1. Jack London's outdoorsy novels became popular, such as The Call of the Wild about Alaska's Klondike gold rush.
2. Outdoorsy organizations emerged, such as the Boy Scouts of America and the Sierra Club (whose goal was/is conservation).
Hetch Hetchy Valley controversy
Hetch Hetchy was a beautiful Gorge that John Muir and the Sierra Club wanted to save. San Francisco wanted to dam it up for the city's water supply.
In this case, TR sided with the city, and he established a "multiple-use resource management" policy.
multiple-use resource management
The policy tried to combine recreation, sustained-yield logging, watershed protection (drinking and irrigation), and summer stock grazing on the same expanse of federal land.
Panic in 1907 featured frightened "runs" on banks, suicides, and indictments against speculators.
The financial world blamed Roosevelt for the storm—branded the "Roosevelt panic"—Roosevelt accused wealthy of engineering the monetary crisis to force gov't to relax assaults on trusts.
Aldrich-Vreeland Act (1908)
Authorizing national banks to release money into circulation backed by collateral.
This law/action paved the way for the monumental Federal Reserve Act (1913).
Election of 1908. Who Ran? Who Won?
William Howard Taft (OH) was hand selected by Roosevelt to be his heir apparent.
Dems William Jennings Bryant
Socialist Party - Eugene Debs
Taft won handily 321-162 in the electoral college.
Tamed unbridled capitalism. He wasn't an enemy of business, but brought it under control.
Through regulation (FDA, Dept of Commerce & Labor, conservation laws, etc. ) he sought the middle-ground in between the "me alone" idea of pure capitalism and the "father knows best" ideas of a government that controls people's lives.
Other parts of his legacy include: (1) increasing the power of the presidency, (2) he initiated reforms, and (3) he showed that the U.S. was a world power and thus held great responsibilities.
Difference between Roosevelt and Taft
Roosevelt used his big stick to get things done.
Taft took a hands-off approach toward Congress, which did not serve him well. He was a mild progressive only, more inclined toward the status quo than reform.
A policy which called for Wall Street bankers to invest their surplus dollars into foreign areas of strategic concern to the U.S., especially in the Far East and in the regions critical to the security of the Panama Canal.
The policy would thus strengthen the U.S. and make money at the same time. Whereas TR had used the in-your-face Big Stick policy, Taft used the sneakier Dollar Diplomacy policy.
Dollar Diplomacy runs into Troubled -- China & Latin America
China's Manchuria railroad -- a black eye on dollar diplomacy -- Russia and Japan block US efforts to purchase the railroad and turn them over to the Chinese.
Latin America & the Caribbean -- The Monroe Doctrine forbade Europe from intervening in Latin America and the Caribbean. The US had a responsibility for the region. Several flare-ups required the U.S. to intervene militarily including Cuba, Honduras, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua (for 13 years)
Taft was more of a trust buster than Roosevelt; Taft brought 90 lawsuits against trusts vs. Roosevelt's 40.
Most noteworthy bust was the Standard Oil Company. The Supreme Court ordered in broken into smaller companies in 1911.
The U.S. Steel Company was under fire from Taft, even though Roosevelt had agreed to let the company survive as one of his "good trusts." When Taft sought to break it up, Roosevelt was furious at his successor's actions.
What issues split the Republican party?
(1) the tariff and (2) conservation of lands.
Tariff -- old-school Republicans were high-tariff; New/Progressive Republicans were low tariff
Conservation -- old-school Republicans favored using or developing the lands for business; new/Progressive Republicans favored conservation of lands.
1910 Congressional Elections
The old-school Republicans and new/Progressive Republicans split the vote, thus the Democrats won heavily in the House of Rep's 228 seats - 161 seats
Why did the Progressive wing of the Republican Party turn against Taft?
Taft's gaff on tariffs -- Taft, as the mild Progressive, had promised to lower the tariff.
Payne-Aldrich Bill - the House passes a moderate reduction in tariffs, but the Senate tacked on many tax increases to the bill.
Signed by Taft, the Payne-Aldrich Bill actually broke his campaign promise and angered many.
Ballinger-Pinchot quarrel (1910).
Taft's unpopular conservation move..
Sec. of Interior Richard Ballinger said that public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska would be open for development.
Chief of Forestry Gifford Pinchot was critical of the decision. Apparently siding with Ballinger, Taft fired Pinchot—an unpopular move.
How did the Republican Party split at the party's 1912 convention?
3 strong forces played a role: the National Progressive League, Teddy Roosevelt, and President Taft (and the Old Guard).
In 1911, the National Progressive Republican League was formed, with Sen. Robert LaFollette as its leader, he seemed destined to be their candidate.
Roosevelt, angry that Taft abandoned his policies, throws his hat into the ring for President. Roosevelt forthwith seized the Progressive banner pushing LaFollette aside.
President Taft would win the nomination after Roosevelt cries foul.
Roosevelt runs as a third party candidate
New Nationalism -- Progressive Party platform
Roosevelt's PlatformInspired by The Promise of American Life by Herbert Croly (1910). The book agreed with TR's old policy of leaving good trusts alone but controlling bad trusts.
Pushed for female suffrage and social programs such as minimum wage laws, social insurance programs.
These "socialistic" social welfare programs would be a hard pill to swallow for business folks and conservatives.
Bull Moose Party
Nickname for the Progressive Party. After Roosevelt got the Progressive nomination, and entered the campaign, he said that he felt "as strong as a bull moose," making that animal the unofficial Progressive symbol.
New Freedom - Democratic Party platform
Woodrow Wilson's platform Plan supported small business and wanted to bust all trusts, not distinguishing good or bad. The plan did not include social welfare programs.
Explain the difference between Roosevelt's form of progressivism and Wilson's.
Roosevelt's New Nationalism campaigned for
-- continued consolidation of trusts and labor unions, paralleled by the growth of powerful regulatory agencies in Washington.
-- female suffrage and a broad program of social welfare, such as minimum-wage laws and "socialistic" social insurance.
Wilson's New Freedom
-- favored small businesses and wanted to bust all trusts, not distinguishing good or bad.
-- The plan did not include social welfare programs.
Election of 1912
1. Republican: Pres. William Howard Taft
2. Democrat: Woodrow Wilson
3. Progressive: Theodore Roosevelt
Talk between Taft and TR got nasty. Wilson could enjoy just letting his other two opponents rip themselves.
Wilson won handily with 435 electoral votes, Roosevelt 88, and Taft 8.
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