used to tx menopause, dysmenorrhea, atrophic vaginitis (weakening of vaginal wall), turner syndrome (failure of ovary development), cancers of the prostate and breast, suppresses postpartum milk production, acne, prophylaxis for osteoporosis, and oral contraceptives
contraindications for estrogen
avoid in pregnancy and thrombolytic disorders increases risk of embolism if pt smokes, is over 35 and with high doses
clinically used in menopause, cyclic use on 21 day, and 7 days off and has increase risk of endometrial cancer. (can be prevented by cyclic use or use w/progestin
nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen. use to be used as post coital contraceptive but not anymore, now used for inoperable prostate cancer
clinical uses for progestins
used as an oral contraceptive, Tx of dysfunctional uterine bleeding w/estrogens, dymenorrhea w/estrogens, premenstrual tension, endometriosis w/estrogens, endometrial cancers, and suppression of lactation
adverse effects of progestins
congenital defects, hyperglycemia, fluid retention, HA, and visual disturbances
injectable progestin, adverse effect is fluid retention (diuretics and low sodium diet used to tx it)
adverse effects of ethyl estradiol
thrombophlebitis, thromboembolism (age>35 and smokers), hypertension, possible risk of cancer (endometrial and breast), melasma (freckling when exposed to sun), and depression.
Morning after pill
large dose of estrogen (DES), must administer 24 hours but not more than 72 hours after intercourse. adverse effect is nausea and vomiting
selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERMS)
raloxifene, used for prevention of osteoporosis in post menopausal women. decreases LDL cholesterol,
precaution for raloxifene
must discontinue use 72 hours prior to and during prolonged immobilization and avoid in pregnancy
toxemia of pregnancy
preclampsia (hypertensive state) and eclampsia (coma and seizures as sequel to preclampsia)
drug Tx for toxemia of pregnancy
IV infusion of Magnesium sulfate (monitor for signs of toxicity and also contraindicated for heart block or kidney impairment), Hydralyzine (alternative), and valium®/diazepam (for seizures)
used to induce labor, stimulates milk production, and uterus, can also be used to stop hemorrhage
adverse effects of oxytocin
monitor mother and fetus every 10 minutes to prevent uterine tetany, rupture, amniotic fluid embolism, or cervical laceration, can cause decrease in uterine placental placental blood flow and postpartum uterine atony.
contraindications of oxytocin
severe preclampsia, fetal distress, fetal abnormal presentation, and 1st stage of labor.
methyltestosterone is drug used to Tx hypogonadism, impotence, suppress lactation in women and inoperable breast tumors in women.
adverse effects of testosterone
masculinization in women, cholestatic hepatitis, salt and fluid retention,
adverse effects of anabolic steroids
roid rage, psychotic reactions, increase risk of CAD, liver toxicity, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, hair loss, sperm abnormalities, prostate enlargement, and change in libido
use to Tx erectile dysfunction but is not an aphrodisiac. unlabeled used in pulmonary hypertension.
adverse effects of sildenafil
color vision disturbances (blue haze or brightness), HA and hearing problems