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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
2/26/14 U.S. History Midterm Exam Review Terms
Terms in this set (72)
Escaped slave who was self educated and close friend/ adviser to Lincoln on several important racial issues.
Senator from Illinois who ran agains Lincoln in the 1858 senatorial election and 1860 presidential election. He was the designer of the Kansas Nebraska act.
Battle of Ft. Sumpter
April 12th, 1861 The Battle which started the Civil War in Charleston S.C. (S.C. was the first state to succeed from the Union) After S.C. left the union they attacked Ft. Sumpter, defeating federal troops posted there and starting the Civil War. Shortly thereafter the rest of the Confederacy also left the union.
Raid on Harpers Ferry, W.V.
Radical abolitionist John Brown who believed that slavery would not be ended without war attempted to capture the arsenal at Harpers, W.V. and start a slave insurrection along with a group of radical abolitionists and his sons. They were not successful and John Brown was later hanged.
Salmon P. Chase
Lincoln's Treasury Secretary who was not at all loyal to Lincoln and was eventually appointed to the supreme court after he quitted the job of Treasury Secretary.
U.S. Representative and author of Missouri Compromise from Kentucky
Dred Scott V. Stanford
U.S. Supreme Court case which held that blacks could not be citizens and congress could not make any laws restricting slavery.
Supreme Court case ruling saying that the 14th amendment did not apply to state laws, only federal laws.
U.S. vs. Crookshank
Following the Colfax Massacre, this Supreme Court Case ruled that the equal protection and due process clause of the 14th amendment only applies to state action and not to federal laws.
U.S. vs. Reese
Upheld restrictions on voting such as poll taxes and literacy tests for the purpose of disenfranchising black's.
Plesse vs. Fergison
U.S. Supreme Court case which upheld segregation laws and helped separate but equal.
Roger B. Taney
Chief Justice and author of the Dred Scott decision.
George B. McClellan
Union war General during the Civil war who won the Battle of Antietam. He always overestimated the enemy and pissed off Lincoln by wanted to be over prepared. Eventually Lincoln got rid of him during the war before the election of 1864 and McClellan ended up running against him and loosing.
This 1820 Compromise attempted to balance out the power between free and slave states. Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state, however all states above the 36, 30'' parallel line were not permitted to be "slave states". In addition, Main was carved out of what was then Massachusetts as a "free state" to balance out power between pro and anti slavery states in congress.
Compromise of 1850
This compromise drafted in part by Henry Clay and Stephen Douglas revised the Missouri Compromise in order to defuse tensions between the South and North and aimed at avoiding a Civil War. Among other provisions, the Compromise provided for the "self determination" of future states on the issue of slavery and further enforced and strengthened the highly disliked (by northerners) the Fugitive Slave Act.
Network of abolitionists, escaped slaves, freed slaves, and even slave owners during slavery which worked to sneak slaves out of slavery and into the safe territory of northern states.
Speech given by Lincoln at Gettysburg a few month's after the battle dedicating the Gettysburg Cemetery to the troops who fought and died there.
Amendment to the Constitution passed on April 8th, 1864 which provided for the abolition of slavery and involuntary servitude.
Amendment to the Constitution passed on a July 9th,1868 which provided for the equal protection, due process, citizenship, and privileges of all citizens under the law. This included newly free slaves and was highly controversial and debated between the North and South during the Reconstruction Era.
Amendment to the Constitution ratified on February 3rd, 1870 which prohibited the discrimination or denial of any citizen the right to vote based on race or color. This amendment was one of many "Reconstruction Amendments" during the Reconstruction Era.
John Wilkes Booth
Assassin of Abraham Lincoln who arguably hurt the South more than anything by killing the President. Lincoln was actually planning on being pretty forgiving to the South after the Civil War but his Vice President, Johnson was not so forgiving after taking over the Presidency.
Radical abolitionist who believed that slavery would not be ended without war. John Brown attempted to capture the arsenal at Harpers, W.V. and start a slave insurrection along with a group of radical abolitionists and his sons. They were not successful and John Brown was later hanged.
United States soldier and statesman who was the President of the Confederate States of America during the entire Civil War which was fought from 1861 to 1865.
George G. Meade
Union General during the Civil War who is most well known for defeating Confederate General Robert E. Lee at Gettysburg.
William T. Sherman
Union General during the Civil War who is most well known for his "march to the sea". During this operation starting with his harsh victory in Atlanta, Sherman tactfully and brutally went on a camping of victories all throughout the south in which he basically conquered and then set on fire everything in his path.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Abolitionist and Author who wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin": A highly influential and controversial book depicting the lives of slaves.
Escaped Slave who went back into the south countless times in order to help more slaves escape to freedom on the Underground Railroad.
Ulysses S. Grant
18th President of the United States and Union General during the Civil War who defeated Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Courthouse, effectively ending the war.
Robert E. Lee
Confederate General who commanded the Confederate Army of Northern V.A. during the Civil War
16th President of the United States who lead the Union and Nation through the Civil War until his assassination in 1865.
Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson
Confederate General during the Civil War who served as a Corps Commander under Lee. He was shot by friendly fire and had to have his arm amputated, however he died eight days later, striking a huge blow to the South's army.
Battle of Antietam
The first major battle of the Civil War occurring on Union Soil between George B. McClellan and Robert E. Lee.
Battle of Gettysburg
July 1st-3rd, 1863: Major battle of the Civil War occurring in Gettysburg P.A. between Generals George G. Mead and Robert E. Lee. This battle is considered to be the turning point in the Civil War.
Surrender at Appomattox
April 9th, 1865: The final Battle of the Civil War between General Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant.
Vice President to Lincoln and 17th President of the United States following Lincoln's assassination. He was the first president to be impeached by Congress due to his failure to included protection to freed slaves after the Confederacy was readmitted to the union.
Compromise of 1877
Compromise that occurred of the corrupt 1876 election between Samuel J. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes. When South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida all delivered two different verdicts on the election, a committee was created to elect the new president. Throughout closed door meetings and sketchy political deals, Hayes was awarded the presidency. As compensation for this, southern democrats were given positions of power in Washington and several reconstruction programs were terminated. The Compromise of 1877 is generally thought of as the end of reconstruction.
Newly freed slaves who were led to believe that they were safe in moving to Colfax, Louisiana. They were met with a surprise when several white citizens attacked and killed over 70 blacks by beating, burning, and pillaging their houses and churches. The attackers were never prosecuted and the families of the murdered were never recompensed.
William Howard Taft
Successor to Roosevelt who lost to Wilson in the election of 1912.
Progressive who took presidency when McKinley died. He ran again and won again and then left office after two terms. Taft was his successor and upon his return trip from Europe after his presidency he was disappointed in Taft and challenged Taft for reelection by forming his own party (The Bull-Moose-party Progressive Party). This split the republican vote, giving Wilson the victory in the election of 1912.
The Square Deal
Teddy Roosevelt's plan aimed at conserving recourses, controlling corporations, and protecting consumers. He became enraged when his successor (Taft) could not do these things and ran against them, splitting the progressive party to form the "Bull Moose" party. He lost this race.
The first true investigative journalists who exposed government corruption and advocated for reform through this exposure. They were true progressives during the gilded age and into the progressive era.
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy prior to WWI and the assassination of Franz Ferdinand were allied against the allies, although Italy later dropped out of the alliance. Later became the Central Powers.
Russia, France, and U.K. Later turned into the Allies.
Treaty of London
Treaty between England and Belgium prior to the Schlieffen Plan. This is the main reason for England's initial involvement in the war.
Section of territory which had for centuries been disputed over between France and Germany. This is one region that Germany had acquired during their unification under the Prussian state prior to WWI. After the war at the Treaty of Versailles it was given back to France.
A territory under Austrian rule which several Yugoslav Nationalists/ terrorists wished to free from Austrian control by assassinating Archduke Franz Ferdinand and arguably starting WWI.
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
June, 28 1914: A group of Yugoslav Nationalists/ terrorists wishing to free Bosnia- Herzegovina from Austrian control assassinated Franz Ferdinand (the heir to the Austro- Hungarian throne). These men were not directly affiliated with Serbia but they did live there. Serbia was responsible for their actions and was blamed for the murder.
Member of the Black Hand who murdered Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
German Emperor during WWI.
Czar of Russia during Russia's evolvement in WWI. He was later overthrown and killed in the Russian Revolution.
Franz Joseph I
Emperor of Austra- Hungary from 1948 until 1916.
Germany's plan to March through Belgium on their way to Paris. Kiser Wilhelm was nervous about a treaty between France and Russia so he asked Schlieffen to come up with a plan because tensions were growing rapidly in Europe prior to the assignation of Franz Ferdinand. Belgium had previously made an alliance with England and because of this treaty the U.K. got involved in the war.
War of attrition (basically who had more men) terrible form of warfare that was sorely felt on the western front and hardly known on the home front.
First used in WWI, many sides, mainly Germany used chemicals such as nerve gas and cyanide to kill enemy combatants. Chemical Warfare has sense been outlawed internationally.
War Of Attrition
Basically the principal of who had more men on the battlefield.
Battle of the Somme
Bloodiest battle of WWI.
British passenger ship with 128 American citizens on it (apparently had arms on it too) which was sunk by German U Boats and really ticked off America. At our warning, the Germans stopped unrestricted submarine warfare, but they eventually got desperate and started again, evoking the U.S.'s involvement in the war.
Leader of the October Revolution which killed the Czar and his family and instilled the communist Bolshevik party in power in Russia. After this revolution Russia pulled out of WWI.
Treaty of Brest Litvosk
Bolshevik Russia (Lenin) makes a treaty with Germany to end involvement in WWI in order to deal with domestic affairs.
Intercepted Telegram from Germany to Mexico proposing an alliance between the two countries. If victory was achieved for Germany they promised to reconquer lost territories in the U.S. Unfortunately the U.S. intercepted this telegram and joined the war.
President of the United States during WWI. Drew up, proposed, and advocated for the original league of nations as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. In the election of 1912 he took his initial presidency, and in the election of 1916 he ran under the slogan "he kept us out of the war" and five months later we joined the war.
Wilson's original points he wanted included in the Treaty of Versailles which included an outline for the league of nations and the protectorate. Only about four made it into the final draft of the treaty.
David Lloyd George
British Prime minister during WWI.
English poet and soldier in WWI.
The time, at which Germany and the axis powers surrendered to the allies, ending WWI and the fighting on the western front.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty ending WWI, which was meant to reconcile the results of WWI but instead punished the Axis powers and Germany in particular, laying the groundwork for WWII. The treaty was hastily made and poorly constructed.
League of Nations
Thought up by Woodrow Wilson, It envisioned a conference for all the nations of the world to hammer out political and economic issues. It was shot down by both U.S. senators such as Senator Lodge, and by other nations at the Treaty of Versailles who only wished to punish their assailants from WWI.
Henry Cabot Lodge
U.S. Senator who lead the opposition to accepting Wilson's proposal for the League of Nations and succeeded.
Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
This case ruled that the 14th amendment only applied to federal citizenship and not to state citizenship. This undermined the whole point of the 14th amendment because as a consequence the state didn't have to obey the 14th amendment and could discriminate against blacks all they wanted.
U.S. vs. Cruikshank (1876)
The ruling of this case essential undermined the due process clause of the 14th amendment. It allowed for the state not to persecute people such as those who murdered 63-150 people during the Colfax Massacre. The state did not persecute those individuals and they got off Scott free because of this ruling.
Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)
Court ruling which legitimized "separate but equal" policies in the U.S.
French Statesmen and leader during WWI.
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