Research midterm 2019 TIU

Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 49
Terms in this set (49)
What is the difference between Validity and Reliability?Validity- the degree to which inferences reflect how things are in actuality (does the research/test measure or test what it says it measures?) Reliability- A particular measurement technique, when applied repeatedly to the same object, would yield the same result each time. The more reliable the measure, the less random errorHow do Validity and Reliability affect each other ?High reliability does NOT mean high Validity.What is the IRB and what is their role ?Studies involving human subjects need to obtain approval from an independent panel of professionals called IRB. Body that receives research proposal IRBs became widespread during the 1970s as result of federal legislation & public concern with the ethics of biomedical & behavioral researchWhat are the factors to bear in mind when developing in Research Question ?It must be specific, must have a range of answersWhat is internal validity?Degree of certainty with which one can conclude causal relationshipsWhat is external validity?Degree to which the relationship can be generalized across units, treatments, outcomes, and settingsWhat is construct validity?Degree to which a chosen variable captures the hypothetical construct (i.e. the degree to which the measured variables used in the study represent the hypothesized constructs) - Degree to which what you're talking about matches what you're talking about: Researcher + Audience = Same Page (High construct validity means it matches on every level)What is statistical conclusion validityDegree to which the researcher has come to the correct conclusion through statistical analyses (about this relationship)What are the different types of Research Designs covered in this course ?Qualitative Research; Quantitative Research; Mixed Methods DesignWhat is qualitative research?Relies upon a naturalistic and interpretive approach in order to understand the research question of interest. Research is exploratory in nature and relies upon the relationship between the researcher and the subject of exploration to illuminate meaning. (Open-ended questions - focuses on depth)What is quantitative researchPaint a broad picture of the relationship among the constructs assessed through generating and averaging nomothetic data over a relatively large number of participants (Focuses on breadth)What is mixed methods research?Combines qualitative and quantitative investigative techniquesWhat is the Independent Variable ?Manipulated or controlled in the study (treatment or no treatment. May also be a condition, e.g., cognitive treatment vs interpersonal treatment)What is the Dependent Variable ?Comitant Changes are observed based on the Independent Variable. This is Usually What the Researcher is Observing for ChangeWhat is Randomization or Experimental Control ?Randomization- everyone has an equal opportunity to be assigned to a group Experimental Control- the degree to which a researcher controls the independent variableWhat is Generalization?The Degree to which the Results of a Study Can be Applied to a Real-World Setting (External Validity)What is the Null Hypothesis?Predicts that there is no relationship between the variables in the study ( no relationship between the Independent Variable and the dependent variable)What is the Alternative Hypothesis?States that there is some true relationship between the variablesWhat is Type I error ?Incorrectly concluding that a true relationship exists (rejecting the null hypothesis when in reality it should be accepted)What is Type II error?Incorrectly concluding that there is no relationship when one does exists (failing to reject that null hypothesis when in reality is should be rejected)......Descriptive Laboratory Studies-Characterized by Investigations that DO NOT exercise experimental controls (such as Randomization or Manipulation of the Independent Variables). Low Internal Validity and Low External ValidityDescriptive Field Studies -Investigations that DO NOT Exercise Experimental Controls, and Controls, and are conducted in a Real-Life Setting. (real life settings .. high external validity) Low Internal Validity and High External ValidityExperimental Laboratory StudiesCharacterized by Manipulation of the Independent Variables and are Conducted in a Laboratory Setting. High in Internal Validity and Low in External ValidityExperimental Field StudiesInvestigations that Manipulate Independent Variables and are Conducted in a Real-Life Setting. High Internal and External ValidityWhat are the 4 Foundations of Human Behaviors (i.e. the Major Tenets of Philosophical Underpinnings)?1) Positivism 2) Postpositivism 3) Constructivism 4) Critical TheoryWhat is positivism?Truth exists and can be knownWhat is postpositivism?Truth can never be fully knownWhat is constructivism?There are no absolute truths.What is critical theory?Social constructions are shaped by social, political, historical, and economic forces.What is the definition of evidence based practice? (EBP)A process in which the best scientific evidence pertinent to a practice decision is an important part of the information practitioners consider when making that practice decision.What is the definition of sex?Anatomical or biological characteristicsWhat is gender?Culturally ascribed characteristics associated with maleness or femaleness (cultural phenomenon)What is ethnicity?Characterized by sharing cultural characteristics, national origins, religious affiliations, or other types of socially or geographically defined groupWhat is culture?The values, beliefs, language, rituals, traditions, and other behaviors that are passed down from one generation to another within any social group (Subjective Culture)What is race?Biological components where people are divided into groups based on similar physical features and behavioral tendencies. Pay close attention to the following: - Mongoloid - Ancestors were born in East Asia - Caucasoid - Ancestors were born in Europe - Negroid - Ancestors were born in Sub-Saharan AfricaWhat is a threat to internal validity? How can you minimize the threat?Selection= existing group differences prior to treatment due to selection methods; Minimized through utilizing random assignment.What is a threat to external validity? How can you minimize the threat?Treatment variations= does the treatment have to be given exactly as it was in the clinical trial in order for it to be effective? Minimized by assuring that treatment variations do not affect generalizability.What is a threat to construct validity? How can you minimize the threat?Mono-method bias= using a single method to measure a construct. Minimized by using multiple ways to measure a construct.What is a threat to statistical conclusion validity? How can you minimize the threat?Low power= insufficient sample size to detect true effect. Minimized by conducting power analysis to determine adequate sample size.