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Terms in this set (36)
chronic inflammation disease of the airways marked by spasm in the bronchi of the lungs due to a hyperactive immune response to individual's triggers and is reversible through medications
What is asthma?
inflammation, mucous and bronchoconstriction
What makes breathing difficult for people with asthma?
sudden constriction of the bronchioles
What does spasm in the bronchi mean?
- The body comes in contact with a allergen
- B-lymphocyctes triggers plasma cells to make IgE antibodies b/c they think they are helping
- IgE attaches to mast cells in the body and triggers the release of histamine
What is physiology of asthma attack?
make the capillaries leaky and make mucous
What is the function of histamines?
All the mediators rushed to the site causes the bronchioles to become tighten
What is causes inflammation in an asthma attack?
when inflammation continues on a neurologic response is triggered which causes receptor sites, beta cells to be activated.
What role does the neurological play in asthma attack?
dilate the bronchiloes and bronchi
What are beta cells?
coughing, dyspnea, wheezing, chest tightness and breathlessness
What are the clinical manifestation of asthma?
air passing through constricted airways
What is wheezes?
during inspiratory and expiratory
When is wheezes heard?
high-pitches & whistling/musical sounds of air passing through smaller and narrow airways
What is sibilant wheezes?
snoring sounds over larger airways
What is snorous wheezes?
severe dyspnea, diaphoresis, tachycardia, hypoxemia, low O2 in blood which can lead to cyanosis during a late sign, and airway obstruction
What are complications of an acute attack?
Status astmaticus, respiratory failure, pneumonia, atelecatsis
What are complications of a severe attack?
have symptoms less than twice a week and wake up less than twice a month
What is mild intermittent asthma?
have symptoms two or more days a weeks and wake up 3-4 nights a month
What is mild persistent asthma?
Have symptoms at least everyday and wake up one or more nights per week
What is moderate persistent asthma?
Have symptoms during the day and wake up every night due to asthma
What is severe persistent asthma?
Family history, medications the patient is currently taking, exposures, diet, previous medical conditions
What are risk factors of a health history?
History of allergies, eczema, co-morbidities such as gastroesophagel reflux (GERD), drugs, sinus problems
What examples of medical conditions associated with asthma?
Because they feel like they aren't getting enough O2
Why may a patient feel anxious?
Check O2 sat, then glucose levels
What would you do if a patient is increasingly feels anxious?
- treat symptoms immediately
- administer O2, monitor Vital Signs, oxygenation, arterial blood gases, fluids to treat dehydration
- medications; anti-inflammatory, beta-agonist
- ongoing respiratory assessment
- positions to enhance lung expansion
- identify sources that cause exacerbation
What are treatments used in asthma?
2L O2 via NC
How is oxygen therapy written?
How much oxygen can a regular nasal cannula deliver?
How much can a salter nasal cannula deliver?
Anti-inflammatory and Bronchodilators
What are the types of drug therapy for asthma?
Because Bronchodilators are used fir emergency to open the bronchioles. The body will become tolerance with continues use and will become less effective during actual emergency situations
Why is corticosteroids a preferred medication for asthma?
Because the body can't keep up the inflammation in the body
Why isn't our natural steroid enough during an asthma attack?
Reacts with the beta receptors in the body
How does Bronchodilators work?
Because it contains some beta one
Why does Bronchodilators cause an increase in heart rate?
During emergency situations
When is Bronchodilators best used?
How are Bronchodilators and anti inflammatory medications delivered?
Dry powder inhaler
What is DPI?
To prevent yeast build up
What is the rationale for moisten the mouth after inhaling asthma medication?
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