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Terms in this set (26)
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
represents one particular form of a gene. Alleles code for the same genetic trait; however, alleles have different nucleotide sequences.
Alleles can exist in different forms and diploid organisms typically have two alleles for a given trait.
the genetic makeup (DNA) of an individual.
the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Dominant allele (stronger gene)
masks the effects of a recessive gene, and so recessive traits are only seen when an individual inherits genes that are both recessive. A dominant gene is represented with a capital letter. Widow's peak is represented by uppercase W= widow's peak
Recessive allele (weaker gene)
is a gene that can be masked by a dominant gene. Its opposite is dominant and is always living in its shadow. A recessive allele has to team up with another recessive allele in order to show up. A recessive gene is represented by a lowercase letter. Straight hairline is represented by lowercase w.
Homozygous dominant (purebred dominant)
refers to having identical dominant alleles for a single trait. (WW-widow's peak)
Homozygous recessive (purebred recessive)
refers to having identical recessive alleles for a single trait. (ww-straight hair line)
(hybrid) refers to a pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive (Ww= widow's peak)
a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds X and Y
X and Y chromosomes are the sex chromosomes
The genotype of a normal human female:
44 autosomes + XX
The genotype of a normal human male
44 autosomes + XY
is a diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross. A Punnett square is a probability square.
the likelihood that an event will occur
offspring of the P generation
offspring of the F1 generation
can reveal whether an organism that displays the dominant phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous. This organism is breed with a homozygous recessive individual.
is a trait that is controlled by a gene or an allele located on the sex chromosome. In humans, the sex chromosomes are the X chromosome and the Y chromosome. A trait that is determined by the allele on X chromosome is particularly described as X-linked whereas that determined by the allele on Y chromosome is said to be Y-linked. Ex. hemophilia, red-green colorblindness, male pattern baldness, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy
a chart that shows the relationship in a family
two or more different genes ex hair
two forms of the same gene. There may be more than one dominant form and several different phenotypes. Ex. ABO blood groups IA, IB, ii
A heterozygous condition in which both alleles at a gene locus are partially expressed and which often produces an intermediate phenotype.
the heterozygote expresses both traits
father of genetics
segregation states that the two alleles for a specific trait separate during the formation of sex cells, so that each sex cell carries only one allele for a given genetic trait. The union of gametes during fertilization reforms allele pairs in the offspring.
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