PHED 102A: Midterm
Terms in this set (68)
A mode of training that requires resistance from opposing muscle groups, body weight, barbells, dumbbells, weight machines, elastic tubing and other equipment that are utilized to increased muscle strength, muscle size, and muscle endurance
How many times a week should you work out if you're a beginner?
2-3 workouts per week (30-40 min each)
What does regular physical activity cause?
-Lower risk of heart disease
-Reduce depression and anxiety
-Help with weight control
-build and maintain strength in bones, muscle, and connective tissue
-improve immune system
What physical adaptations come from weight training?
-Muscle tendon, ligament and bone strength
-Muscle size, endurance, flexibility, and definition
-General overall health and fitness
-Strict exercise form and good posture
-Breathing (exhale during most exertion, inhale during least exertion)
-Smooth, controlled movement
-Full Range of Motion (ROM)
-Warm up before lifting
-Use strict exercise form from beginning to end
-Adjust weight machines to your height and limb length
-Carefully add and remove weight from bar to keep it balance
-Lift only the amount of weight you can handle
-Always use a spotter when performing maximum lifts
-Communicate with the lifter
-Concentrate completely on spotting
-Check the bar for weight balance and surrounding area for any interference
-Keeps hands off of the bar if the lifter can complete the lift alone
-Maintain a proper spotting position throughout each lift
Weight Room Etiquette
-Avoid bouncing weights off of the floor
-Share weights and machines
-Bring a towel
-If sick, stay away from the weight room
What is the primary purpose of a warm up?
-Prepare the body for more vigorous activity
-minimize the potential for injury
Light aerobic exercise (like walking, jogging, or biking for 5-10 minutes) will increase the heart rate, increase blood flow to the working muscles and raise the body temperature
Part of the warm up will prepare the muscles for the specific movements that will be used during the activity or workout to follow (may consist of warm up sets through full range of motion before lifting heavier loads for each exercise)
What is the main purpose of cool down?
To allow the body to gradually return to its pre-workout condition; also, an ideal time to stretch
A passive type of stretch that gently stretches the muscles, tendons, and ligaments to a particular length and then held
Why is static stretching the most common form of stretching?
-Effective in increasing flexibility
-Low risk of Injury
Static Stretching Guidelines
-Stretching a muscle beyond its normal length to a point where you feel some tension and moderate discomfort
-Holding the static stretch position for 10-30 seconds (perform each stretch 1-3 times)
-Stretching a minimum of 3 times a week to improve flexibility
Repetitive bouncing type movements that stretch the muscle; Can easily lead to over stretching allowing greater risk for injury
Stretching a muscle, the contracting the same muscle either isometrically or concentrically for a few seconds, then stretching it again further (Usually done with a partner)
Principle of Specificity
Physical improvement in weight training will be specific to the type of training that is imposed on the body; the body will adapt specifically to the stress of exercise
Principle of Overload
The body must work harder than it is accustomed in order to improvements in fitness to occur; Intensity, duration, and frequency of workouts are factors involved
How to design a personalized weight training program?
-Choosing which exercise to perform (Multijoint v. single joint)
-Number of exercises (one exercise per part)
-Order of Exercises (large to small)
-Regularly working opposing muscle groups (if improve chest, improve back)
-Amount of resistance (muscle strength v. muscle endurance v. muscle size)
Muscle Strength Exercises
-3-5 Minute Rest
Muscle Endurance Exercises
-30-90 Second Rest
Muscle Size Exercises
-1-2 Minute Rest
How many muscles in the human body?
Muscle that attaches to the bones which are responsible for providing movement by contracting
Characteristics of Skeletal Muscles
The ability of the muscle to be stretched
The ability of the muscle to return to its normal length after being stretched
The ability of the muscle to receive a stimulus
The ability to receive a stimulus and contract
Dense, cordlike connective tissue that attach muscle to bone that assist in providing movement
Dense connective tissue that connect bones across joints that stabilize and support the joints by holding bones in place
A thin membrane that surrounds the bones, muscles, and body organs that helps muscles to change shape and length during movement and allows force from muscles to be transmitted without hurting other tissue
Types of muscle fibers
Fast twitch fibers and slow twitch fibers
Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers
Contract slowly and are slow to fatigue
Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers
Contract quickly and fatigue quickly
The motor neuron and all of the fibers to which it sends impulses
Muscle cells increase in size if overloaded properly
Decreases in muscle strength and size due to inactivity
The maximum amount of force that a muscle or group of muscles can produce during one contraction
The ability of a muscle or muscle groups to perform repeated contractions for a period of time
When the muscle generates force against a constant resistance through a range of motion
A static contraction in which the muscle generates force against an immovable object
When the muscles contract and shorten, overcoming the resistance
An exercise is when the muscle lengthens as it is overcome by the resistance
Hands are closer together
Hands are wider apart than shoulder width
Hands about shoulder with apart
Alternating Grip (Mixed Grip)
One hand over the bar and one hand under the bar (Ex: deadlift or spotting on bench)
Pronated Grip (Over Grip)
Thumbs facing toward each other (Ex: Bench)
Supinated Grip (Under Grip)
Thumbs facing away from each other (Ex: Bicep Curl)
Cons of Free Weights
-Safety: Greater risk of injury
-Longer to learn lifting techniques: more complex than machines
-Time: little longer to get through a workout
Pros of Free Weights
-Cost: Much less expensive than machines
-Variation of exercises: Free weights can do way more stuff
-Utilization of stabilizing muscles: smaller stabilizing muscles are used
Cons of Machines
Cost: Very expensive
Space: Takes up a bit of space
Lack of Variety in Movement Patterns: stabilizing muscles are not as active
Pros of Machines
-Safety: Less risk of injury
-Simplicity: Not much skill needed
-Time: Faster workouts
-Isolation of Muscles: Machine isolates muscles
How much time do you need to spend on weight training each week?
Those who are attempting to gain muscle size and strength may be in the gym for an hour or two, 4 days per week. However, most newcomers to weight training can receive considerable benefits from a 30-40 minute workout, 2-3 days per week.
Will women gain muscle size and develop man-like features through regular weight training?
It is extremely difficult for women to experience a big increase in muscle size mainly due to testosterone.
If you gain muscle size then stop working out for a while, will the muscle turn to fat?
Muscle and fat are two separate body tissues. What can happen, however, is that the muscles will atrophy (get smaller) due to less demands being placed upon them.
Losing body fat from a specific part of your body
Is spot reduction possible through weight training?
Spot reduction is a myth; Losing body fat involves reducing fat throughout the entire body and is generally enhanced by lowering caloric intake and increasing caloric expenditure.
Will weight training decrease your flexibility and make you muscle bound?
With full range of motion and stretching, flexibility will be maintained despite firmer, bigger muscles
Will weight training cause you to lose speed and explosiveness?
If general weight training principles are followed, speed can improve substantially
Is it beneficial for older people to lift weights?
90 year olds can experience large strength gains that allow for functional strength and better balance creating a higher quality of life
How important is recovery time between weight training sessions?
Without proper recovery, it's only a matter of time before the muscles are worn down and improvement in strength, size or endurance no longer occurs
How much protein do I need if I'm working out regularly?
The current and generally accepted RDA (recommended daily amount) for the average adult is 0.8 grams of protein for kilogram of body weight; active weight lifters need 1.2-1.8 gram protein per kilogram of body weight
Consistently pushing the body too hard
What are some signs of overtraining?
-Muscle Soreness that lingers
-Restlessness and Irritability
Should you work out when you are sick?
If your symptoms are above the neck (head congestion, runny nose, coughing, sneezing) it is generally safe to workout