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Terms in this set (30)
what happens in prophase?
the chromosomes pair up
what are chromosomes made up of?
two sister chromatids
what happens in prometaphase?
the mitotic spindle microtubules attach to kinetochores
what happens in metaphase?
the chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell (equator)
what happens in anaphase?
the chromosomes split; pulled to opposite sides of the cell
what happens in telophase?
nuclear membrane begins to form to create two new nuclei; cells begin to separate
what happens in cytokinesis?
the cytoplasm divides and forms two daughter cells
what happens in interphase?
the cell is preparing for cell division by duplicating chromosomes (dna)
what is mitosis?
a process where a cell divides into two identical daughter cells
what are somatic cells?
cells that make your organs and tissues
what are sex cells?
the only cells that are not somatic - sperm and egg (gametes)
what are the two major stages of cell division in eukaryotes?
mitosis and cytokinesis
what phase do cells spend most of their time in?
what happens in the g1 phase?
the cell increases in size, then synthesizes new proteins and organelles
what happens during the s phase?
chromosomes are replicated, dna synthesis takes place. once a cell enters the s phase, it usually completes the rest of the cell cycle
what happens in the g2 phase?
organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced, and once g2 is complete, the cell is ready to start the m phase
what is chromatin?
the long, thin strands made up of dna and protein
what are chromosomes?
genetic information is passed from one generation to another on chromosomes. before cell division, each chromosome is duplicated, or copied
what is the centromere?
the place where the two sister chromatids are attached
what does the centrosome do?
it helps to organize the spindle
what do the microtubules do?
helps structure the cell and separate the chromosomes
when does the new nuclear envelope form?
what cells can mitosis occur in?
diploid and haploid cells
what is the end product of mitosis?
two daughter cells
what organisms does mitosis occur in?
all organisms except viruses
what is the genome composed of?
what are the two types of cell division in eukaryotes?
mitosis and meiosis
what happens at the end of interphase?
new dna is synthesized and the chromosomes are replicated
what kind of reproduction is mitosis used in?
what is does not occur in prophase?
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