Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Chem ch 6
Terms in this set (67)
mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and
valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together. A chemical bond causes a change in properties of the atoms involved.
chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions. Ex)NaCl Na is the cation. Cl is the anion. Atoms gain or lose electrons
the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms. Ex) C typically shares electrons with other atoms
covalent bond in which the
bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge. Atoms of the same element will form nonpolar covalent bonds. Ex) F bonded to F
polar covalent bond
covalent bond in which the bonded
atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons Ex) F bonded to C
percentage ionic character formula
% ionic char. = [(more electroneg. Element - less electroneg. Element) / more electroneg. Element] * 100
0-5 % non-polar covalent bond
5.1-50% Polar covalent
50.1 - 100% Ionic
a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent
bonds. Ex) H2O
a chemical compound whose simplest units are
molecules. Ex) beaker full of H2O
indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each element in a chemical compound. Ex) CH4 (4 is a subscript)
shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound. Does not include ionic compounds
molecule containing only two atoms ex) ***Old Henry's Nose Flows Clear Brown Ink - O2, H2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2 will form in molecules that contain two atoms
formation of a covalent bond
a bond will form when the stability of both atoms is maximized (atomic energy is minimized)
the distance between 2 bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy (max stability) which is equal to the average distance between the 2 atoms. (the shorter the bond the stronger it is, the longer the bond the weaker it is)
the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms.
octet rule (stable octet)
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet (8) of electrons in its highest occupied energy level (s and p energy levels) with the exception of H and He.
a notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown. Ex) Li. Be: .B: :C: :N:. ::O: ::F:. ::Ne::
unshared pairs (lone pairs)
a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons and dot-pairs or dashes between 2 atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds and dots that are next to an atomic symbol represent unshared electrons
indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared pairs of the atoms in a molecule
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of 1 pair of electrons between 2 atoms (2 electrons)
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of 2 pairs of electrons between 2 pairs (4 electrons)
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of 3 pairs of electrons between 2 atoms (6 electrons)
double or triple bonds
Ex) Lewis structures CO2, CCl4, N2, (SO4)2-
bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure (at least 2 Lewis structures are required) ex. SO2, O3, (C2H3O2)-
covalent network bonding
covalently bonded compounds that do not contain individual molecules, but instead can be pictured as continuous three-dimensional networks of bonded atoms. Usually these substances have a strong crystalline structure (diamond)
composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal.
the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound's formula can be established.
ex) CaF2 Ca: + 2 ::F:. --> Ca2+ + 2 ::F-::
ions maximize stability by combining in an orderly arrangement
the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions. (the amount of energy in the crystal lattice)
Characteristics of ionic compounds
high melting points, are brittle, generally water (polar)-soluble, are electrical conductors in their molten (liquid) states or when dissolved in water
Characteristics of molecular compounds
low melting points, generally soluble in ethanol (non-polar), not electric conductors in their molten (liquid) states when dissolved in water
a charged group of covalently bonded atoms.
the chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding "sea of electrons"
metals are good conductors of heat and electricity and have lust. They also exhibit the following properties: malleability, ductility, metallic bond strength
the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets
the ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire
metallic bond strength
varies with nuclear charge, the higher the nuclear charge the stronger the bond
a mixture (solution) of metals ex) 14 k gold is 14 parts gold and 10 parts of other metals usually silver. 24 k gold is considered pure gold
bronze (Cu and Sn), brass (Cu and Zn), solder (lead-free)(Sn and Cu, Zn and possibly Ag), aluminum alloys ( Al and Cu, Mg, Mn), sterling silver (Ag and Cu), steel (Fe and C)
the uneven distribution of molecular charge. Molecular polarity can affect the shape of a molecule. Examples) HCl, Cl2
(Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far apart as possible
VSEPR "ABE" notation
where A is the central atom (there will only be one central atom), B is the number of bonded atoms to the central atom (there may be as many as 6 bonded atoms to the central atom), E stands for the number of lone pairs of electrons on the central atom only
the mixing of two or more orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies
orbitals of equal energies produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom
(1 s orbital and 3 p orbitals = 4sp3 hybrid orbitals of equal energy)
intermolecular forces (IM forces)
forces of attraction between molecules. These are not bonds and tend to be weaker than bonds
equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance that occurs between two atoms in a bond ex) +H-Cl-
intermolecular forces of attraction between two polar molecules (strongest IM force)
the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom is bonded to a highly electronegative atom and is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule ex. water
London dispersion forces
are the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles (weakest IM forces)
Which electrons are involved in chemical reactions?
Atoms ______, ________, or _______ electrons in chemical bonds.
gain, lose, or share
What does a structural formula not include?
Which of the following is a polyatomic anion?
Which molecule would show resonance?
e. None of the above
What are the basic units that make up ionic bonds?
cations and anions
outcome of rock and metal, other impurities
used to separate impurities from metal
surface impurities, chemical reaction between metal and air, unwanted oxidation
bronze is an alloy of
sharper edge, until alloys were used
separate pieces fused together in fire and lightly tapped
people who want to turn things into gold, led to chemistry
steel is an alloy of
iron and carbon
waste and impurities melted off steel
aluminum company of America
Space Age Metal
nickel and titanium
Which of the following would be an example of a molecule?
e. None of the above
Recommended textbook explanations
Chemistry: Matter & Change, Florida
Sarquis, J., Sarquis, M.
Interactive Science: Physical Science
Chemistry Matter and Change
Sets with similar terms
Modern Chemistry Chapter 6 Vocab
Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding
Tim Annis Chemistry Chapter 6
Chapter 6: Chemical Bonding
Other sets by this creator
Chem Ch 7 Naming Compounds
Chapter 16: AP
The Scarlet Letter Vocab