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DELTA Module 1 - Terminology
Terms & definitions
Terms in this set (190)
A test to find out if the aims of a course/part of a course have been achieved and the content absorbed.
A test to discover a learner's general abilities in skills and systems, not related to a particular course or text or programme of study
The everyday testing we do in class - not under test conditions, i.e. not timed or graded, etc
A test done to place a student in the correct level/class at the start of a course
A test undertaken to test strengths and weaknesses in skills and systems
A test of a student's natural ability to learn a language (in this case)
The consistency of the results gained from the test
If a test looks like it tests what it is supposed to test (impression)
To what degree a test tests what it is supposed to (throughness)
How much a test tests what it is supposed and nothing else (precision)
How much a test accurately predicts how the student will use the language in real life
How easy the exam is to administer and mark
The impact of the test on society, educational systems and individuals
A test where there can only be right or wrong answers, i.e. no subjective judgement on part of the marker
A test that allows a variety of answers to be given and relies on a marker to 'judge' subjectively the correctness of the answer
A test of the language point or skill by focusing on that language point/skill
A test of something within the context of something else
Discrete item test
A test of one particular area of grammar, lexis or discourse
A test of various aspects of systems or skills at the same time
The effect a test has on the teaching leading up to it
The effect a test has on the teaching that follows the test
A test where a number of answers are given. Students have to choose the correct answer
A test where a number of words have been removed from a text. Students have to complete the text
Evaluation during a course
Evaluation after a course
A test graded in comparison to the whole group of exam takers
A test graded according to explicit criteria
short answer test
A test type where students have to provide a short answer to a given question
A desire to learn based on some kind of internal requirement or satisfaction
Requirements for learning which come from 'outside'
The need to learn is based on the student's requirement to 'fit in' inside the L2 environment
Desire to learn caused by the need to achieve something
Total Physical Response (TPR)
An approach based on students responding at first physically and then verbally to teacher commands. (James Asher)
Community Language Learning (CLL)
An approach designed to form a group identity and lower the affective filter by building conversation for later analysis/practice. (Charles Curran)
The Silent Way
The teacher elicits and speaks as a last resort, uses gestures, charts and Cuisenaire rods to work on structures.
An approach based on lowering the students' affective filter as much as possible to encourage acquisition.
Grammar Translation Approach
A deductive approach based on the translation of literacy texts and into L2 with a focus on lexis lists and grammar rules
A method from the 1880s based on speaking and listening instead reading/writing, with lots of teacher talk and quick-fire 'display' questions
An inductive approach formed by Krashen that students should have as much comprehensible input (i+1) as possible
A belief that language is learned behaviour and we learn by imitation of good models
An inductive approach based on drilling and pattern practice, moving towards substitution of elements
A belief that we are born 'hard wired' for language learning, i.e. with an innate capacity
Approaches which are based on the students being given rules to apply logically
Approaches which are based on the students initially being given examples from which they work out the rules for themselves
Task-based learning (TBL)
An approach based on the belief that students learn by using, with a focus on being fluent first and accurate later.
A type of reconstruction activity based on natural-speed dictation of a text.
The Lexical approach
Marked by the belief that lexis is the most important element - language is 'grammaticised lexis' not 'lexicalised grammar'.
Presentation-Practice-Production model for the teaching of discrete items of grammar and lexis.
A method where you find out student ability initially, work on problem areas as necessary and then check student improvement.
Students work things out by themselves so that they are more cognitively engaged and the rules are more memorable.
The idea that exercises which lead students to pay attention to form will lead to noticing these forrms in future input, leading to acquisition.
Tolerance of ambiguity
A learner is happy to wait for a language rule and cope with only part of the story
Describes a learner that needs the 'packaging' and presentation of data which the teacher, syllabus or course provides
A learner who can learn from general elements in a learning context and outside the classrooom
Describes a learner who learns language through global exposure to language
Describes a learner that needs to analyse elements sequentially
Describes a learner who only sees systems in terms of the general structure
Describes a learner who notices systems in larger structures
The overall structure of a text.
The study of all aspects of discourse within specific spoken or written genres.
A text (written/spoken) produced in a specific social context for a specific purpose.
A style of discourse within a text.
How ideas hang together in a text - do they sound logical together or not.
How the language is linked together in a text.
The topic of a sentence.
The comment made on the topic of a sentence.
The sentence of a paragraph that sets the topic of/summarises the paragraph.
The first sentence in a typical newspaper article which is an expansion of the headline and previews the text to come.
A type of grammatical cohesion - something that refers back to a previously mentioned item in a text.
A type of grammatical cohesion - something that refers forward to another thing mentioned later in a text.
A type of grammatical cohesion - referring to something 'outside' of the text, which is commonly known by all.
A type of grammatical cohesion - referring to something that you would only understand if you were present in the original conversation.
A type of grammatical cohesion - The missing out of words in informal speech or writing.
Repetition of all or part of a grammatical structure or pattern.
A type of grammatical cohesion - Use of (usually) determiners and adverbs of place and time to substitute a previous element to avoid repetition.
A type of lexical cohesion. A chain of lexical items within a piece of discourse which add cohesion because they are linked in some way.
The repeating of key lexis. A type of lexical cohesion as it provides language links throughout a text.
consistency of register
Maintaining the same register in a text to aid cohesion - this gives a text an overall linguistic unity
Spoken or written discourse enacted for the purpose of getting something done.
Spoken or written discourse enacted to further human warmth and relations.
A conversation strategy on behalf of both the speaker or the listener to check/guarantee comprehension.
Responses and comments from a listener to show that they're actively listening and which contribute to 'fuel' conversation.
Non-verbal gestures, body language and facial expressions.
Paired phrases (or triplets) which occur together in often fairly fixed ways.
Finding other ways of saying what you want to say when you don't know a word.
The basic unit of spoken discourse, according to Scott Thornbury.
Words, polywords, fixed & semi-fixed phrases which act as 'signals' to show the direction and organisation of discourse.
Any stressed syllable in a word or utterance.
The prominence which has the greatest change of pitch direction/intonation pattern.
An utterance, or part of an utterance, with one tonic stress.
This is prominence before the tonic stress, where the frequency rises partially to prepare for the tonic stress.
Explaining intonational rules via grammatical patterns.
An attempt at explaining intonation in a systematic way due to the attitude being used.
An attempt at explaining intonation in a systematic way based on the discourse before and/or after.
When less important information is expressed by a drop in the pitch of the speaker.
Various types of connected speech where one sound becomes linked to another in some way.
When a sound changes to become more like an adjacent sound so it's easier to pronounce.
When a new sound appears between words to ease the linking between words.
Describes some speakers who always pronounce the /r/ in all positions.
A type of voiceless consonant sound produced by a brief constriction often represented with the symbol /?/
When a sound disappears to ease the transition between words.
Linking together of sounds across word boundary where none of the sounds are lost or gained.
Many of the smaller words in English have two forms of pronunciation, depending on whether they're stressed or not.
How the speaker views temporal elements of an action.
extrinsic meaning (modals)
The meaning that is conveyed by all 9 true modal verbs in that they all can express some kind of likelihood or probability.
The more individual meaning that a modal verb expresses in addition to likelihood/probabilty.
pre-modification of nouns
Modifying a noun phrase by adding something (usually an adjective or determiner) before the phrase.
post-modification of nouns
Modifying a noun phrase by adding something (usually a relative clause) after the phrase.
Words with the same spelling and the same sound, but a different meaning.
Words with the same spelling, but with a different sound and a different meaning.
Words with the same sound, but with a different spelling and a different meaning.
The symbolic or suggested meaning of a word.
Words that co-exist with more than random frequency.
Creating different forms of words by adding prefixes (before the root) and/or suffixes (after the root).
The words immediately around a particular item in the text which help to deduce its meaning.
The basic gist of what a text is about.
Applying world or context knowledge in our decoding of the meaning of a text.
Processing a text starting with the smaller elements of a text (words, sounds, etc) then building upwards to decode the text as a whole.
Using a mixture of 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' processing in order to decode meaning.
A reading sub-skill which involves moving your eyes over the text quickly to get a general idea of the topic, content and main ideas.
A reading sub-skill which involves looking through a text quickly to find specific information.
A mental representation of a situation or the context of a text.
The use of idealised model texts in order to give students an example of what is expected in their writing, in terms of layout and structure.
An approach to writing where what the writer does is of prime importance.
An approach to writing that prioritises the realtionship between reader and writer - the purpose of the text, the social context and intended audience.
The mode in which learners best acquire knowledge, language, etc
Definitions of learner styles divided into different 'intelligences' conforming to a different sphere of activity
An overview of a learner's strengths and weaknesses in terms of what learner styles and intelligences they have
Students who are motivated by the desire to be better than the people around them.
Students who are motivated by the desire to improve a skill regardless of how others are performing.
An example of a student's work to see what their rough ability is. Not taken under test conditions
An approach based on the belief that students need training in 'learning' to make them more effective learners.
Words that speakers use to fill space in a conversation and buy the speaker 'thinking time'.
Putting the agent (the doer of the action) as the subject of the verb.
Putting the object of the action before the verb, and possibily not mentioning the agent at all.
A form of passive in which the subject has something done by someone else.
A sentence split in two to foreground one element of the sentence.
The largest grammatical unit smaller than a sentence.
A post-modification of a noun that adds extra information about the noun.
A clause where the verb is marked for tense and agrees with the subject.
A clause which has a participle or infinitive as its verb and is not marked for person or tense.
The smallest element of sound in a language that produces a recognisable difference in meaning.
The greater emphasis of some syllables or words over others in the course of speech.
The regular repetition of stress in time.
The rise and fall of the voice while speaking.
The physical mechanics of uttering phonemes.
A phoneme produced by a constant flow of air over the larynx and out of the mouth.
Two vowel sounds produced together so that they are defined as one sound.
The study of speech sounds and sound production in general.
A basic speech sound in which the breath is at least partly obstructed.
place of articulation
The site where a sound is formed.
manner of articulation
How you make the sound at the site of obstruction.
Words that are the opposite of each other in meaning.
A word which is used instead of the 'actual' word because of the strong cultural associations to the thing.
A word whose meaning includes the meaning of other words.
The most specific and clear definition of a word.
A phrase with an established figurative meaning.
A figure of speech where you use something in place of another to help describe it.
A figure of speech where you describe something by saying what it is similar to, using 'as' or ' like'.
A word whose meaning is included in that of another word.
The capacity of a word to have many related meanings.
These are the broader aims of a teaching programme.
These are the smaller steps taken to achieve the broader goals.
Factual data about a learner which does not involve their attitudes, beliefs or personality.
Needs involving the perceptions, goals and priorities of the learner.
A syllabus that focuses on the achievment of a series of concrete goals and objectives.
A syllabus that focuses on the skills and learning that take place as the learner learns. There are no pre-planned objectives.
This is a product-orientated syllabus which moves from one discrete item to the next.
This is a product-orientated syllabus which moves from one discrete item to the next, but revisits previously taught items.
A syllabus which teaches discrete items one by one. The students build these up into 'whole' language.
A syllabus which looks at larger stretches of discourse more holistically, i.e. the whole language is presented, which the learners analyse to draw out patterns and rules.
A product-orientated syllabus with various parallel strands. Usually a core of structures with topics, functions, lexis, etc wound around it.
A way of dividing up language in terms of the general concepts it conveys.
A noticing activity - this starts with a teacher-given text.
A noticing activity - this starts with a student text.
A manner of articulation - A complete closure is made in the vocal tract and the soft palate is raised. Air pressure increases behind the closure, and is then released 'explosively'.
A manner of articulation - A complete closure is made in the vocal tract and the soft palate is raised. Air pressure increases behind the closure, and is then released more slowly than a plosive.
A manner of articulation - Two vocal organs come close enough together for the movement of air between them to be heard.
A manner of articulation - A closure is made by the lips, or by the tongue against the palate, the soft palate is lowered, and air escapes through the nose.
A manner of articulation - A partial closure is made by the blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge. Air is able to flow around the sides of the tongue.
A manner of articulation - Vocal organs come near to each other, but not so close as to cause audible friction.
A place of articulation - Using closing movement of both lips.
A place of articulation - Using the lower lip and the upper teeth.
A place of articulation - The tongue tip is used either between the teeth or close to the upper teeth.
A place of articulation - The BLADE of the tongue is used CLOSE to the alveolar ridge.
A place of articulation - The BLADE of the tongue is used just BEHIND the alveolar ridge.
A place of articulation - The FRONT of the tongue is raised CLOSE to the PALATE.
A place of articulation - The BACK of the tongue is used AGAINST the soft palate.
A place of articulation - The GAP between the VOCAL CORDS is used to make audible friction.
Movement of the tongue, lips and jaw from one pure vowel sound to another.
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