Science 3 9wks

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What is natural selection?
The process by which a population's environment determines which traits are beneficial and which are not
What is evolution?
When a population changes over time to carry on beneficial traits
What is speciation?
When 2 or more populations no longer successfully reproduce
What are the three causes of speciation?
Geographic barriers, different food or habitat, different mating behavior
How do humans influence the extinction of a species?
Destroy habitats, clear land for farming, roads and businesses, introduce new species to land, poaching/overhunting, pollution
What is a species?
A group of individuals that can reproduce successfully in nature.
What is a population?
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same place at the same time.
What is an ecosystem?
A community of organisms and their non-living environment
What is the abiotic factor
the non-living parts of an ecosystem
Abiotic factor examples
sunlight, soil, air, rocks, temperature, water
Biotic factor examples
plants and animals
What is the biotic factors
the living parts of an ecosystem
Producers
obtain energy from sunlight to make their own food (Ex: plants)
Consumers
obtain energy by eating other organisms (Ex: animals)
Decomposers
obtain energy by eating dead or decaying organisms (Ex: mushrooms, bacteria)
What is photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is the process where plants use sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to make their own food (glucose) and oxygen.
Where does photosynthesis take place?
It occurs in the chloroplasts.
Where do producers get their energy?
from the sun
Where do consumers get their energy?
From eating other organisms
What are herbivores?
plant eaters
What are carnivores
meat eaters
What is mutualism
Where both organisms benefit from a symbiotic relationship.
What is an example of mutualism
Bees get nectar from flowers to drink while the flowers are pollinated by the bees
What is commensalism?
Commensalism is where one organism benefits while the other is unaffected.
What is an example of commensalism?
the remora fish swims next to the whale shark and eats the shark's scraps. The whale shark is not affected
What is parasitism?
Parasitism is where one organism benefits while the host is harmed.
Give an example of competition in an ecosystem?
Two animals fight over the same food source, which limits their population sizes.
What is an example of parasitism?
a tick feed's off a dog's blood exposing it to harmful sickness
Give an example of cooperation in an ecosystem?
Bees divide their jobs in the hive working together for the same common goals.
Name 7 abiotic factors in an ecosystem.
Dirt, rocks, sunlight, water, temperature, air, nutrients
Create a food chain with the following organisms - owl, grasshopper, mouse, grass
Grass - grasshopper - mouse - owl