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Human Physio: Lab 1 Cell Biology
Terms in this set (55)
Contains DNA of a cell
processes, sorts, and delivers proteins
Protein synthesis and secretion
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down foreign objects and dead organelles
organize spindle fibers and distribute during mitosis
Phases of Mitosis
sister chromatids reach opposite poles
DNA is replicated
chromatin begins to condense into visible chromosomes
chromosome line up along the equator
sister chromatids split and move to opposite poles
What is the basic structural component of the plasma membrane?
What can be found embedded within the plasma membrane?
What is meant by passive transport
what is meant by active transport
carrier mediated such as the use of ATP
what are some different types of channel proteins?
What is the purpose of enzymes and how are they produced?
The purpose of enzymes is that they are biological catalyst that speed up chemical reactions.
Enzymes are a subclass of proteins so they are made of amino acids
How are enzymes used within cells to carry out their functions?
Reactant molecules, substrates, allow them to fit into active sites which allow for them to continue on with the reaction.
What factors can affect the performance of enzymes?
What staining dye is used for cheek swab?
What type of cell are we observing in the cheek?
What parts of the cells are visible under the microscope when methylene blue is added?
Nucleus because it is acidic
The methlyene blue stain functions through its ability to bind to acidic components. How might this explain its role in the staining of the nucleus?
Methylene blue is basic. The nucleus is acidic. Methylene blue will attach itself to an acidic component which is why the nucleus appear blue.
One adapative trait of viruses is the ability to envelope themselves in host-derived membrane after viral progeny budding from cells. how might this help viruses proliferate?
Viruses steal plasma membrane and body has a hard time differentiating/identifying it.
A patient is deficient in the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme responsible for cholesterol synthesis. A cell biologist notices an odd morphology to this patient's cell. What is the connection?
saturated fats add more space and allow cell membrane to be more fluid. (straight line in elevator)
unsaturated fats add less space to be more fluid (knee up in elevator)
What solution is hypertonic?
Which concentration of NaCl lyse the cells?
Deionized water, 0%
Which of the three solutions most closely resembled the solute concentration in a red blood cell? How do you know?
How might these results relate to the effect of a salty diet on blood pressure?
more salt means there is more pressure on arterial wall causing a spike in BP
Why might absence of chloride ion channels in cystic fibrosis patients result in the common symptom of excessively thick mucous secretions
Chloride attract sodium, so if there are none, sodium wont move, and then there is no water going thru causing it to be mucousy and sticky because sodium is blocking passage.
(negative attract positive)
as the sum of all chemical reactions in a cell
act as catalysts, meaning they increase the rate of chemical rxns by lowering activation energy
Purpose of complementary shapes of enzymes (otherwise known as lock and key)
so that they can bind to specific substrates
An accurate description that states that the binding of the substrate alters the shape of the active site by inducing a conformational change in the enzyme
induced fit model
Why do changes in pH and temp affect enzyme?
Because it can alter the shape of the enzyme, denaturing it.
What does catalase break down?
Breakdowns hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen
Why is catalase important?
prevents oxidative stress
True or false:
a live cell has a high concentration of catalase
What temp variation produces the greatest abundance of bubbles? What might this indicate about catalase's optimal temp range?
What happens to enzyme when temperature is too hot?
What happens to reaction when temperature is too cold?
slow down rxn
Which pH treatment produced the greatest abundance of bubbles?
Too acidic / too basic reaction will not happen
In cyanide poisoning, cyanide binds to and inhibits the cytochrome-c oxidase enzyme of the electron transport chain. Which organelle would be affected and how would its function be impaired?
Mitochondria. No ATP production.
nonpolar molecules move in and out of cell by their own thermalmotion, down a concentration gradient
ions through a channel/ using a carrier
In some neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) where motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord die, the nuclear pores of neurons become clogged. What is one product that would be unable to exit the nucleus and which steps of gene expression would be inhibited?
The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
(down concentration gradient)
What is the structural difference between the smooth and the rough ER?
Which of the following requires energy?
a) active transport
b) facilitated diffusion
c) simple diffusion
d) ion channels
which cell component packages proteins into membrane bound vesicles before they are sent to their destination?
The phase where chromatin begins to condense into visible chromosome is?
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