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Addiction as a Disease of the Brain - Evaluation
Terms in this set (11)
What did Volkow and Li 2000 find?
That individuals addicted to cocaine, imaging showed reductions in D2 receptors associated with abnormal activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and in the anterior cingulate gyrus - brain regions that are involved in salience attribution and inhibitory control.
Abnormal function in these cortical regions (obitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus) is linked to what? (Volkow and Li 2000)
Compulsive behaviour and disinhibition
Volkow and Li 2000 suggested that abnormalities in the obitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus underlie the compulsive nature of what?
Drug administration in addicted individuals and their inability to control their urges to take the drug when they are exposed to it.
What did Adriani 2003 find? (Adolescence may be a period when brain development is particularly sensitive to such a neurobiological changes)
that exposure of rodents to nicotine during the period that corresponds to adolescence, but not during adulthood, led to significant changes in nicotine receptors and an increased reinforcement value for nicotine in later life.
What was a powerful way of helping addicts improve their public image?
Medicalising the condition
Satel 2004 argues that the brain disease model implies that the brain is necessarily the most impotent and useful what?
Level of analysis for understanding and treating addiction and to provide optimal care.
Satel 2004 believes that the brain disease model ignores what?
The dimension of choice in addiction, the capacity to respond to incentives and also the essential fact people use drugs for reasons
Satel shows that the enjoyment of drugs alone aren't the main reason they are used how does he explain this?
The latter becomes obvious when patients become abstinent yet still struggle to assume rewarding lives in the realm or work and relationships.
What is an issue with the addiction is a disease of the brain theory?
That nearly any kind of behaviour is accompanied by biological changes to the brain that can be detected if researchers look hard enough. So findings do not indicate a disease of biological origin.
Focusing too strongly on the workings of the addicted brain leaves addicted persons in the shadow what could this result in?
Distracted clinicians, policy makers and sometimes patients themselves from other powerful psychological and environmental forces that exert a strong influence on them.
The EEpidemiological Catchment Area study, done in the early 1980s, surveyed 19,000 people of those who had become dependent by on drugs by age 24 how many reported no drug symptoms at age 37?
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