APUSH Chapter 16 IDs
Terms in this set (27)
Most widespread Indian group in W; a diverse group of tribes and language groups. Some farmers, some highly nomadic hunters. Cultures based on close &extended family networks & initmate relationship w/nature. Tribes subdivided into "bands" of 500 people; each had governing council, but decision-making process involved all members. Tasks divided by gender; religion=spiritual power of the natural world; proud &agressive warriors. A wall in the way of expansion that needed to be knocked down
Tribes would move thru grasslands to follow herds; these tribes were nomadic and set up tepees when stopped. They provided economic basis for the Plains Indians' way of life; principle source of food, skin supplied materials for clothing, shoes, tepees, blankets, robes &utensils. "Buffalo chips"= dried manure, which provided fuel. Bones=knives &arrow tips; tendons=strings of bows
Southwestern Hispanic Societies
Scattered from TX-CA; in NM centers of these societies were farming &trading communities Spanish est. in 1600s; lived alongside Pueblo Indians &some American taders &engaged primarily in cattle &sheep ranching. Major trading center=Santa Fe. Tribes included Pueblos, Apache, &Navajos
Hispanic residents of CA that spoke English; Mexican resident of CA
Like in NYC; Chinese went there after the laws were passed. They revolved around powerful orgs that functioned as something like benevolent societies &filled many of the roles that political machines often served in immigrant communities in E cites; often led by prominent merchants
Chinese Immigration Act of 1882
Banned Chinese immigration into the United States for ten years and barred Chinese already in the country from becoming naturalized citizens. Congress renewed law for another 10 years in 1892 and made it permanent in 1902.
Homestead Act of 1862
Permitted settlers to buy plots of 160 acres for a small fee if they occupied the land they purchased for five years and improved it; intended as a progressive measure; failed
Area in Nevada where they found a lot of gold but the most valuable ore was silver. Californians dominated the settlement and development of Nevada. Used quartz mining to retrieve silver from deeper veins
Towns that would pop up near mining areas that was practically built over night. It started out with some men looking for gold and living in tents. Then a farmer realized that they would need a supply of food so he went to that area. Merchants realized that these miners needed to purchase manufactured items, construction workers to build houses, and then the town needed entertainment. All this built up one right after another, after the mining and the gold moved out, so did the people &businesses; it became a Ghost Town
The Cattle Kingdom
the railroads gave birth to the range-cattle industry by giving it access to markets. The same railroads ended it by bringing farmers to the plains and thus destroying the open range. Long before U.S. citizens invaded the Southwest, Mexican ranchers developed the techniques and equipment that the cattlemen and cowboys of the Great Plains later employed. Americans in Texas adopted these methods and carried them to the northernmost ranges of the cattle kingdom. The journey of cattle to markets marked the beginning of the "cattle kingdom"
between 1867-71, cattlemen drove nearly 1.5 million head up the Chisholm Trail to Abilene—a town that, when filled with rampaging cowboys at the end of a drive, rivaled the mining towns in rowdiness.
as settlement of the plains increased, new forms of competition emerged. Sheep breeders from Cali and Oregon brought their flocks onto the range to compete for grass. Farmers ("nesters") from the East threw fences around their claims, blocking trails and breaking up the open range.
Rocky Mountain School
a school for those with artistic abilities; famous painters Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moran. Painters celebrated the new West in grandiose canvases, some of which were taken on tours around the eaters and Midwestern states and attracted enormous crowds, eager for a vision of the Great West.
Wild West Shows
they stamped out on their audiences an image of the West as a place of adventure and romance that has lasted for generations. They emerged out of a number of earlier entertainment traditions; were first opened in Omaha, Nebraska in 1883 by William F. Cody and died out after WWI. They were like Vaudeville shows/talent shows.
Americans transformed the cowboy from the low-paid worker he rally was into a powerful and enduring figure of myth. In popular western novels ("The Virginian" (1902)), Americans romanticized his freedom from traditional social constraints, his affinity with nature, even his supposed propensity for violence.
Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier Thesis
the settlement of the west by white people was the central story of American History. The process of westward expansion has transformed a desolate and savage land into modern civilization. It has also continually renewed American ideas of democracy and individualism and had, therefore, shaped, not just the West, but the nation as a whole.
In the face of white demand for access to lands in Indian Territory, a new reservations policy emerged, known as "concentration." In 1851, each tribe was assigned its own defined reservation, confirmed by separate treaties. The new arrangements benefited mostly the whites; it divided the tribes making them easier to control, it allowed the govt. to take over new land for white settlement.
: the "concentration" policy was replaced with a plan to move all the Plains Indians into two large reservations—one in Indian Territory (Oklahoma), the other in the Dakotas. The govt. poorly administered the reservations it established.
from 1850s-late 1880s; Indian warriors attacked wagon trains, stagecoaches, and isolated ranches in retaliation for earlier attacks. As the US army became more involved, Indians focused more on their attacks on white soldiers.
Sand Creek Massacre
In Colorado, the Arapaho and Cheyenne tribes were coming into conflict with the white miners settling in the area. Indians attacked stagecoach lines and settlements in an effort to regain lost territory. Gov. urged Indians to congregate at army post for protection before the war. One Arapaho and Cheyenne band, under Black Kettle, camped near fort Lyon on Sand Creek in Nov. 1864. Col. Chivington led a volunteer militia of drunken miners to the camp, where they massacred 133 ppl, Black Kettle escaped.
Battle of Little Bighorn
In response to white settlers penetrating Indian Territory in Dakota, the Sioux rose up in 1876 and left their reservation; bands of warriors gathered in Montana (under Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull). The army set out to bring them back to the reservation. Little Bighorn in Southern Montana in 1876, warriors surprised General Custer and 264 members of his regime, surrounded them, and killed every man. The chiefs had gathered as many as 2,500 warriors.
the Sioux turned to Prophet Wovoka, a Paiute who inspired an ecstatic spiritual awakening that began in Nevada and spread quickly to the plains. The new revival emphasized coming of the messiah; its most conspicuous feature was the "Ghost Dance", which inspired ecstatic visions that many participants believed were genuinely mystical.
Battle of Wounded Knee
on Dec. 29, 1890, the 7th Cavalry (once Custer's regiment) tried to round up a group of about 350 cold and starving Sioux at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Fighting broke out; 40 whites and 200 natives died.
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 provided for the gradual elimination of tribal ownership of land and the allotment of tracts to individual owners. Adult owners were given US citizenship, but couldn't gain full title to their property for 25 yrs; applied most to western tribes; aka the gradual taking of Indian Lands (fail)
making natives more like whites; In applying the Dawes Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs promoted the idea of assimilation that lay behind it.
the Bureau took Indian children away from their families and sent them to boarding schools run by whites, where they believed the young people could be educated to abandon tribal ways.