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Psychology Exam 2
Terms in this set (79)
The onset of the NS precedes the onset of the US (best arrangement for conditioning; it's better if the time between the onset of the NS and the onset of the US is brief).
The onset and offset of the NS precede the onset of the US (the stimuli don't overlap).
The onset of the NS and the onset of the US occur simultaneously (poor conditioning because the NS is not a predictor).
The onset of the NS follows the onset of the US (the least effective). It works for inhibitory conditioning (a tone occurs before the shock terminates).
process of developing and strengthening a conditioned response through repeated pairings of a neutral stimulus (NS) with an unconditioned stimulus (US); It happens rapidly during early trials and then it slows down.
Asymptote of conditioning
Maximum amount of conditioning in a specific situation.
Intensity of the US
more intense USs produce more rapid conditioning.
Intensity of the NSs
more intense NSs produce more rapid conditioning
Intensity of the UC and NSs
The asymptote and speed of conditioning depend on
a conditioned response (CR) is weakened or eliminated when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is repeatedly presented in the absence of the US; In some situations _____ doesn't occur even if the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the US (i.e. a boy is bitten by a dog, but then he doesn't have any other problems with dogs for years; he still fears dogs many years after); doesn't work with some phobias because people avoid those stimuli that they fear.
______does not completely eliminate the effects of conditioning:
A response that has been _____ can be reacquired quite rapidly (it may take only a few pairings) when the CS is once again paired with the US.
reappearance of a conditioned response to a CS following a rest period after extinction; doesn't last forever; each time the response recovers it is usually weaker and extinguishes more quickly than before.
Several sessions of ______ may be needed before a fear is completely eliminated.
_____ is not a process of unlearning. It rather involves learning something new; it involves learning to inhibit the occurrence of the CR in the presence of the CS.
______ may represent the partial weakening of this inhibition.
sudden recovery of a CR during an extinction procedure when a novel stimulus is introduced.
Distinguish _____ (reappearance of habituated response) and _____ (recovery of a response that has been partially inhibited with extinction).
tendency for a CR to occur in the presence of a stimulus that is similar to the CS; the more similar the stimulus is to the original CS, the stronger the response.
Generalization doesn't occur only when the stimuli are physically similar, it also occurs when the stimuli are similar in meaning (car, truck, automobile ...)
the tendency for a response to be elicited more by one stimulus than another.
Such discriminations can be deliberately trained through a procedure known as ______.
Pavlov hypothesized that human _____ may develop because of a difficulty to discriminate between stimuli; this can happen after a prolonged exposure to uncertainty. He proposes that a similar disorder can be observed in animals when they are exposed to unpredictable events (so they cannot learn to discriminate). The symptoms observed in each animal may vary depending on their temperament: i.e. some animals became anxious, while other became catatonic.
Low ______ in primary (genetic) psychosis (opposite to neurosis).
Violation of other's rights for personal gain. No conditioned anxiety when harming others (Eysenck, 1957) Limited capacity to gain from experiences and for future thinking. 50% of male prisoners meet the criteria for ASPD (Fazel & Danish, 2002).
Anticipating potential danger.
Limited learning from fear conditioning.
Poor learning from social experiences.
Secong Order Condirioning
A stimulus that is associated with a CS can also become a CS. The new NS and CS are labeled NS2 and CS2.
The ____ usually elicits a weaker response than the CS1.
Third order conditioning
could also be possible by pairing yet another stimulus with the CS2. This type of conditioning can be difficult to obtain and the CR3 is likely to be quite weak.
The dog is conditioned with a high shock. Later, a smaller (or higher) shock is presented by itself. The dog has learned to expect the US when it sees the CS; the intensity of its response depend on the animal's most recent experience with the US. Postconditioning presentation of the US at a different level of intensity thereby subsequently alters the strength of response to the previously conditioned CS. Depending on whether the US is increased or decreased in strength, this procedure can also be called US ______ or US _____.
_______ and ______ involve the presentation of a compound stimulus: The simultaneous presentation of two or more individual stimuli.
We don't develop a CR to every stimulus associated with the US. We only develop a response for those stimuli that are _____ at the time of conditioning.
In overshadowing, the most _____ member of a compound stimulus is more readily conditioned as a CS and interferes with conditioning of the less _____ member. The less ________ stimulus come to elicit little or no response.
In _____, the presence of an established CS interferes with conditioning of a new CS. The animal pays attention only to the established CS. This phenomena demonstrates that mere contiguity between an NS and a US is insufficient to produce conditioning. What is crucial in conditioning is the extent to which the NS comes to act as a predictor of the US.
The NS and US do not occur in isolation, but instead occur within a certain _____. The ______ often comes to serve as an overall predictor of the relationship between the two events (NS and US).
a procedure in which an occasion setter can signal whether a CS will be followed by a US (and a CR).
A _____ stimulus is more difficult to condition as a CS than is an ______ (novel) stimulus. Novel stimuli preceding the presentation of a US are most likely to be meaningfully related to it.
prevents the development of conditioned responses to redundant stimuli that are coincidentally paired with a US (i.e. boy taken to preschool for the first time).
The CR is to prepare the organism for the presentation of the US.
Sometimes the CR is similar to the UR (i.e. salivation to bell and food).
Sometimes the CR is the opposite of the original UR: Compensatory-Response Model). Example: Drug reactions:
Blood pressure decreases with heroin - Blood pressure increases with heroin-related cues (the body tries to compensate the response to the drug to maintain a state of homeostasis.
Because these compensatory reactions of the body start occurring before the US is presented, they will be even more effective in minimizing the disturbance produced by the US.
This theory tries to explain the effect of each conditioning trial on the strength ("associative value") of the CS in its relationship to the US.
Stronger stimuli support more conditioning than do weaker stimuli:
Steak: 10 drops of saliva.
Dog food: 5 drops of saliva.
There are changes in the "associative value" of the NS every conditioning trial until it reaches the maximum (i.e. maximum associative value for steak is 10); at that point the NS isn't neutral anymore, it is a CS.
decrease in the conditioned response that occurs when two separately CSs are combined into a compound stimulus for further pairings with the US. When the overexpectation is not fulfilled, the subject's expectations are modified downward.
can be adaptive processes to avoid dangerous situations. They are exaggerated > Overgeneralization.
The study of phobias and classical conditioning; In the beginning... "Little Albert"
Rat paired to load noise. Albert showed not only a fear of the rat but also of objects that were in some way similar to the rat.
Many phobias are acquired when observing fearful reactions in others.
individual's level of emotional reactivity, which is to a large extent genetically determined. Temperament seems to affect how easily a conditioned response can be acquired.
innate disposition to learn certain types of behaviors more easily than others (i.e. humans may have an innate tendency to fear certain kinds of events, i.e. animals).
strengthening of a conditioned fear response as a result of brief exposures to an aversive CS. Covert exposures to the feared stimulus (as in worrying about it) can also result in incubation.
The process of _____ can also occur through observational learning (i.e. psychological debriefing after trauma; they are more likely to develop PTSD because debriefing may give victims the impression that the trauma was more severe than they would otherwise thought).
increase in one's reactivity to a potentially fearful stimulus following exposure to an unrelated stressful event.
Feeding a baby cookies while presenting a rabbit (phobia) at a considerable distance. Over successive sessions, the rabbit is gradually brought closer to the baby.
Counterconditioning. Reciprocal inhibition (although it could be extinction), in which the occurrence of one response can be inhibited by the occurrence of an incompatible response. This can be done with visual imagery (imaginal desensitization vs. in vivo desensitization).
Training in relaxation.
Creation of a hierarchy of imaginary scenes that elicit progressively intense levels of fear.
Pairing of each item in the hierarchy with relaxation.
A behavioral treatment that involves prolonged exposure to a feared stimulus, thereby providing maximal opportunity for the conditioned fear response to be extinguished.
Flooding is more clearly based on the principle of extinction as opposed to counterconditioning.
Exposure needs to be sufficiently long (at least 30 to 45 minutes); otherwise the fear may not be extinguished or it may become stronger.
There is imaginal _____ too:
The greater the level of fear induced by the visualized scenario, the better.
It depends on a person's visualization ability.
It is less aversive than in vivo _____.
It can be used with all types of fears.
Clients are encouraged to approach the feared object as closely as possible, remain there until the anxiety fades away and then approach the object even more closely.
It is gradual (systematic desensitization).
It is also similar to flooding (the client is encouraged to endure a fairly intense level of anxiety).
Clients can be accompanied by the therapist who acts as a model to demonstrate how to interact with the object Participant modeling.
therapy reduces the attractiveness of a desired event by associating it with an aversive stimulus.
The taste of alcohol is paired with painful electric shocks or with nausea.
Nausea-based treatments are more effective than shock-based treatments, because there is a biological tendency to associate nausea with substances that we ingest (it's a biologically relevant response to drinking).
Aversion therapy is sometimes carried out with the use of imaginal stimuli rather than real stimuli covert sensitization.
This depends on the client's ability to visualize images.
Medical Applications of Classical Conditioning
Various aspects of the immune system can be classically conditioned.
Women who received chemotherapy in a hospital setting displayed evidence of immunosuppression when they later returned to the hospital.
Classical conditioning also has important implications for our understanding of the placebo effect.
The appearance of the drug (NS) is paired with the active ingredients of the drug (the US).
With the help of Classical Conditioning, placebos could be used to reduce the frequency with which a patient has to take the real drug.
Thorndike's Law Effect
Operant or instrumental conditioning: behaviors are influenced by their consequences.
Behaviors leading to a satisfying state of affairs are strengthened, while behaviors leading to an unsatisfying state of affairs are weakened.
Skinner box. Behaviors can be divided into two categories:
Involuntary, reflexive-type behavior (classical conditioning) respondent behavior.
More voluntary behavior, controlled by the consequences of the behavior rather than by the stimuli that precede them operant behavior.
The future probability of a behavior is affected by its consequences Darwin's evolutionary principle: adaptive behaviors that lead to favorable outcomes are more likely to be repeated than those that do not lead to favorable outcomes.
Three components of operant conditioning:
Discriminative stimulus: precedes the response and signals that a certain consequence is available.
Response: produces a certain consequence.
Consequence: serves to either increase or decrease the probability of the response that preceded it.
Discriminative stimulus; Response; Consequences
Three Components of Operant Conditioning
precedes the response and signals that a certain consequence is available; a signal that indicates that a response will be followed by a reinforce. These stimuli set the occasion for the behavior. They indicate that the consequences are available.
produces a certain consequence.
In contrast to classically conditioned behaviors, which are said to be elicited by stimuli, operant behaviors are said to be emitted by the organism (they are more voluntary
serves to either increase or decrease the probability of the response that preceded it. can either increase (strengthen) or decrease (weaken) the frequency of the behavior in the future.
Reinforcers (SR): strengthen a behavior (the future probability of the behavior increases).
Punishers (SP): weaken a behavior (the future probability of the behavior decreases).
The behavior (not the person) is reinforced or punished
weakening of a behavior through the nonreinforcement (withdrawal of reinforcement). This process is gentler but slower than punishment.
Discriminative stimulus for punishment (SDP)
Someone who receives a fine for speeding in the presence of a police car.
Discriminative stimulus for extinction (SΔ)
they signal the absence of reinforcement
the stimulus elicits the behavior.
the organism emits the behavior.
Notice something, do something, get something.
Processes of operant and classical conditioning overlap such that a particular stimulus can simultaneously act as both a discriminative stimulus and a conditioned stimulus (i.e. a tone can serve as an SD for the operant behavior of lever pressing for food and it can also be a CS and elicit salivation).
Classical conditioning: Behavior is more involuntary and is a function of what comes before it (stimulus).
Operant conditioning: Behavior is more voluntary and is a function of what comes after it (consequences).
Operant vs. Classical Conditioning
The behavior will increase.
The behavior will decrease.
"add"; the behavior is followed by the presentation or addition of something.
"subtract"; the behavior is followed by the removal of something.
Positive reinforcement, SR+
Negative reinforcement, SR-
Positive punishment, SP+
Negative punishment, SP-
Four basic types of contingencies
Increasing behavior by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus
increasing behavior by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
Decreasing behavior by adding an unpleasent stimulus when the response occurs
Decreasing behavior by removing or preventing a pleasant stimulus when the response occurs
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