38 terms

Chapter 4

parts and functions of cells
Light microscope
an optical instrument with lenses that bend visible light
Cell theory
all living things are composed of cells and all cells come from other cells
Cytoplasm description
everything inside a cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
Nucleus description
the genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell
Plasma membrane description
consists of a phopholipid bilayer in which are embedded proteins
Nucleolus description
a structure inside the nucleus
Ribosomes description
A cell structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into 2 subunits
rough ER description
has ribosomes that stud the out surface of the membrane
smooth ER description
lack attached ribosomes
Golgi description
an organelle in a eukaryotic cel consisting of stack and membrane sacs
Lysosome description
a digestive organelle that contains hydrolytic organelles
Chromosomes description
located in the nucleus, made of DNA and some protein, contains genes
-animals only
structures composed of microtubules and microfilaments
Cell wall description
rigid, tough, made of cellulose, only in plants
Vacuoles and vesicles description
membrane sac
one is large and usually in plants and the other is smaller and usually in animals
Cytoplasm function
constantly moving, pads and supports organelles in the cell
Nucleus function
contains cells DNA
Controls the cells activities via protein synthesis
Plasma membrane function
Sets cell of from surroundings
Acts as a selective barrier
Recognizes signals from other cells
Nucleolus function
ribosomal RNA is made and assembled with proteins imported to make ribosomal subunits
Ribosomes function
carry out protein synthesis
-proteins with bound ribosomes specialize in secretion
Peroxisomes description
contains enzymes for metabolic processes
Cytoskeleton description
-supports the cell and provides shape
-centrioles, flagella,cilia
Mitochondria function
supplies most of the energy for the cell
Chlorplast function
captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food
Peroxisomes function
break down unwanted lipids
break down hydrogen perioxide
Cytoskeleton function
aids in movement of materials in and out of cells
Rough ER function
works on protein
Smooth ER function
synthesize lipids
helps liver process drugs and potentially harmful substances
makes membrane
Golgi function
finishes sorts, labels, and ships products of ER
Ships proteins in vesicles
Lysosome function
digests food which is used for energy
cleans up and recycles-digests non-working or unwanted cells
Chromosomes function
provides instructions for the cells activities (growth and reproduction)
Centrosome/Centriole function
coordinate the building and breaking of microtubules
generate cytoskeleton
coordinate division
Cilia/flagella function
how some microorganisms travel; the tails propel the organism forward
Cell wall function
protects and supports plant cells
Vacoules/vesicles function
moving material around the cell
water storage
tight junction
prevent leakage of extracellular fluid
anchoring junctions
fasten cells together in long sheets (common in muscle cells)
Gap junctions
are channels that allow small molecules to flow through protein lined pore btw neighboring cells