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essential nutrients

any ingredient such as certain amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, or mineral that cannot be formed by an organism and must be supplied in the diet


a chemical substance required in large quantities (ex- phosphate)


a chemical substance required in small quantities (ex- trace metals)

growth factor

an organic compound such as a vitamin or amino acid that must be provided in the diet to facilitate growth; an essential nutrient


a microorganism that requires only inorganic nutrients and whose sole source of carbon is carbon dioxide


an organism that relies upon organic compounds for its carbon and energy needs


an organism that utlilizes light for its energy and carbon dioxide chiefly for its carbon needs


an organism that relies upon inorganic chemicals for its energy and carbon dioxide for its carbon


a microbe that decomposes organic remains from dead organisms


an organism that lives or within another organism (the host), from which it obtains nutrients and enjoys protection


a microbe whose growth is either stimulated by salt or requires high concentration of salt for growth


bacteria that likes basic of alkaline solution


bacteria that likes a neutral solution


bacteria that likes an acidic solution


a microorganism that lives and grows in the presense of free gaseous oxygen


a microorganism that grows best, or exclusively, in the absense of oxygen

facultative anaerobe

can live with or without the presense of oxygen


a microorganism that thrives at low temperatures with an optimum temperature at 0-15 deg. cel.


microorganisms that grow at intermediate temperatures


microorganisms that thrive at a temperature of 50 deg. cel. or higher


an intimate association between individuals from two species; used as a synonym for mutalism


a relationship between two organisms in which the host is harmed in some way while the colonizer benefits


an unequal relationship in which one species derives benefit without harming the other


organisms living in an obligatory, but mutally benefitical relationship

binary fission

the formation of two new cells approximately equal size as the result of parent cell division

generation time

time requried for a complete fission cycle

lag phase

the early phase of population growth during which no signs of growth occur

log phase

maximum rate of cell division which growth is geometric in its rate of increase; also called exponenetial growth

stationary growth phase

phase when the population enters a survival mode in which cells stop growing or grow slowly

death or decline

end of cell growth due to lack of nutrition, depletion of environment, and accumulatio of wastes; population of cells begin to die

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