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147 terms

Social Studies Exam

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Stamp Act
Act which required an official stamp on all legal and commercial documents in the American colonies.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Act which organized territories west of Missouri and Iowa as Kansas and Nebraska; power of popular sovereignty given to people of Kansas.
Non-Intercourse Act
Act which allowed trade with all countries except Britain and France.
Olive Branch Petition
Petition sent by American colonists to King George II asking him to ask for protection from the British Parliament.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty in 1783 which ended the Revolutionary War.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Documents written by Jefferson and Madison that put forth the idea of states' rights.
Pinckney's Treaty
Treaty with Spain which gave Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and the right of deposit at New Orleans.
Indian Removal Act
Act passed in 1830 which authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi.
Fugitive Slave Act
Law passed in 1850 which made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal; it also required their return to slave holders; violators could face $1,000 fine and six months in jail.
Intolerable Acts
Acts passed to punish the citizens of Boston for the Boston Tea Party.
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty which ended the War of 1812.
Tea Act
Act which gave East India Tea Company exclusive right (monopoly) to sell tea in the colonies.
Embargo Act
Treaty which prohibited American ships from sailing to foreign ports; also closed American ports to British ships.
Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty which ended the Mexican War.
XYZ Affair
Incident with the French where they refused to meet with American diplomats without the payment of a bribe.
Jay's Treaty
Treaty in 1795 in which the British agreed to withdraw from American soil, to pay damages for ships they had seized; temporarily avoided war with Britain.
Adams-Onis Treaty
Treaty where Spain handed over Florida and gave up claims to Oregon territory.
Rush-Bagot Treaty
Treaty which limited naval vessels on Great Lakes.
Treaty of Greenville
Treaty in 1795 where Native Americans agreed to surrender most of what is present-day Ohio in exchange for $20,000 with the promise of more if peace was maintained.
Missouri Compromise
1820, Maine admitted as free state, Missouri as slave state, established 36, 30 line for all lands in Louisiana Purchase (north would be free and south would be slave).
Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave Act, banning the slave trade in Washington, D.C., admitting California as a free state, and using popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession.
Declaration of Independence
Document written by Thomas Jefferson declaring the American colonies free and independent of England.
Monroe Doctrine
Statement of foreign policy proclaiming Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Macon's Bill #2
Removed all restrictions on trade with England & France; if either of these two countries stopped attacking U.S. ships, the President could cut off trade with its rival.
Amendment
Formal written change or addition to a document.
Chief Justice
Nation's top legal officer; heads the Justice Department.
Cabinet
Group of officials who head the different executive departments and advise the President.
Checks and Balances
Constitutional principle that one branch of government should not become stronger than another.
Fort Sumter
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the Confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War.
Due Process
Idea that government must follow procedure established by law and guaranteed by the Constitution.
Impeach
Bring a formal charge of wrongdoing against the President or another high government official.
Inauguration
Ceremony at which the President takes the oath of office to begin his term.
Judicial Review
Right of the Supreme Court to determine if a law violates the Constitution.
Veto
Cancel; legally overturn.
Peculiar Institution
Another name for slavery.
Popular Sovereignty
Idea that the people hold the final authority in government; allowing a territory to decide whether to allow slavery.
Potomac River
River that flows through Washington, DC.
Nullify
To cancel, as to cancel a law or an amendment.
Battle of Saratoga
Battle which was the "turning point" in the Revolutionary War.
Spoils System
Practice of replacing government employees with the wining candidate's supporters.
Manifest Destiny
Expression popular in the 1840s when many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
Tariff
Tax on foreign goods.
Monticello
Thomas Jefferson's home in Virginia.
Camp David
President's vacation spot in Maryland.
States' Rights
Idea that states have the right to limit the power of the federal government.
Fort McHenry
Site of a War of 1812 battle where Francis Scott Key wrote our national anthem.
Battle of Yorktown
Final battle of the Revolutionary War.
Valley Forge
Winter headquarters for Washington and the Continental Army.
Battle of Bunker Hill
Battle for the control of Boston during the Revolutionary War.
Hermitage
Andrew Jackson's home in Tennessee.
Battle of New Orleans
Final battle of the War of 1812; won by Andrew Jackson.
Epitaph
Inscription on a tombstone or monument in memory of the person buried there.
Alamo
Mission in San Antonio where, in 1836, Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico.
Trail of Tears
Tragic journey of the Cherokee people from their homeland to Indian territory between 1838 and 1839.
Lone Star Republic
Nickname for texas after it won independence from Mexico in 1836.
Boston Tea Party
Protest in which colonists dressed up as Native Americans and dumped tea into the Boston Harbor.
Boston Massacre
Incident in Massachusetts in 1770 where British soldiers fired on innocent colonists, killing five people, including Crispus Attucks.
Harpers Ferry
Scene of John Brown's raid in Virginia (now West Virginia).
Impressment
Act of forcing someone to serve in the navy.
Platform
Document stating the aims and principles of a political party.
Boycott
Refusal to buy, use, or have dealings with.
Federalists
Political party of Hamilton and Adams; supported a strong central government.
Battle of Concord
Scene of the first victory for the colonists over the British in 1775.
Abolitionists
Persons who wanted to end slavery in the United States.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle where Harrison defeated Native Americans.
Petition
Formal request to someone in authority, usually written and signed by a group of people.
Californios
Spanish colonists who lived in California in the 1800's.
Edmund Randolph
First Attorney General, government's lawyer (2 words).
Rochambeau
Frenchman whose troops enabled the Patriots to win the Battle of Yorktown.
Henry Knox
Fort Knox (in the great state of KY), home of America's gold, named after him; chief of artillery for the Continental Army during the American Revolution; the nation's first Secretary of War (2 words).
Andrew Johnson
President from Tennessee; first to be impeached, found innocent by one vote (2 words).
John Burgoyne
British general defeated at the Battle of Saratoga (2 words).
Brigham Young
Mormon leader who moved his followers to Utah to practice their religion in peace (2 words).
James Madison
Author of the VA Resolutions and President during the War of 1812; introduced twelve possible amendments during the first meeting of Congress; "Father of the Constitution" (2 words).
Jim Cooper
U.S. Representative from Nashville (2 words).
Charbonneau
Sacagawea's husband.
Thomas Paine
Author of "Common Sense" (2 words).
Winfield Scott
General, with an army of 7,000 federal troops, forced the Cherokees from their homes onto the Trail of Tears (2 words).
Stephen Decatur
U.S. captain who prevented Barbary Pirates from using U.S. ships which they had captured (2 words).
John Jay
First Chief Justice of Supreme Court (2 words).
Hessians
German mercenaries during Revolution.
William Clark
Co-leader of the Corps of Discovery (2 words).
York
African American slave who accompanied his master on the expedition to explore the LA territory.
Benjamin Banneker
African American clockmaker who assisted in surveying D.C. (2 words).
Sacagawea
Indian guide for Lewis and Clark.
Santa Anna
Mexican President who led an army against Texas when the Texans revolted against Mexican rule (2 words).
Gerald Ford
President never elected VP or President; became VP when Nixon's VP, Spiro Agnew, resigned; became President when Nixon resigned (Watergate); defeated in his run for the office by Jimmy Carter (2 words).
Tecumseh
Shawnee chief who formed a confederacy among Native American nations in the Northwest; joined with British after Battle of Tippecanoe; killed at Battle of Thames.
Paul Revere
Massachusetts silversmith famous for his engraving of the Boston Massacre (2 words).
Baron von Steuben
Prussian who helped train American troops at Valley Forge (3 words).
Nat Turner
African American preacher who led a revolt in Virginia, killing 55 whites (2 words).
Eli Whitney
American inventor who developed the cotton gin; also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged (2 words).
William Lloyd Garrison
White abolitionist who published an anti-slavery newspaper called "The Liberator" (3 words).
Harriet Tubman
Abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (2 words).
Beckwourth
African American who traveled west to escape slavery; became a chief in the Crow tribe; later discovered a mountain pass through the Sierra Nevada Mountains that enabled thousands of pioneers and gold seekers to reach northern California.
Horatio Gates
American general who helped defeat the British at Saratoga, the turning point in the Revolutionary War; later, as head of the american army in the South, lost to the British at Camden lost to British in Camden (2 words).
Nicholas Biddle
President of the second B.U.S; made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks; the bank went out of business in 18366 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
Barbary Pirates
Demanded bribes from American shippers in the Mediterranean Sea; Jefferson refused; led to war (2 words).
Sam Houston
Commander of the Texas army at the Battle of San Jacinto; later elected president of the Republic of Texas; former governor of Tennessee (2 words).
Stephen Austin
Original leader of American settlers in Texas who obtained a huge land grant from the Mexican government; capital city of Texas named for him (2 words).
Freeport Doctrine
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed people could exclude slavery anywhere if the people simply refused to pass laws protecting slaveholders' rights (2 words).
Townshend Acts
British taxes on many goods which American colonists had to import: glass, paper, lead, paint, and tea.
South Carolina
State where first shots of Civil War were fired.
National Bank
Created by Hamilton to store government money collected from taxes and to loan money to private investors (2 words).
Jacksonian Democracy
Term that describes the spirit of the age led by Andrew Jackson; during this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased (2 words).
Recession
Period in which demand begins to decrease, businesses have lower production.
Preamble
Opening statement of a declaration or constitution.
Electoral College
Group which officially elects the President and Vice President.
Depression
Long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment.
Attorney General
Nation's top legal officer; heads the Justice Department.
Ratify
To approve, as to approve an amendment.
Old Hickory
Jackson's nickname (2 words).
Lexington
Site of the first fighting of the Revolutionary War.
Constitution
Formal plan of government.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Battle fought in Ohio where Anthony Wayne defeated over 1,000 Native Americans (2 words).
San Jacinto
Decisive battle of the Texas Revolution; led by General Sam Houston; the Texans won their independence from Mexico.
Inflation
Continuous rise in the price of goods and services.
Capitol
Building in DC associated with the Legislative Branch.
270
Number of electoral votes necessary to become President.
25
Amendment which sets up the procedures in case of Presidential succession or disability; minimum age for Representative.
100
Total number of Senators.
Nullification
Act passed by the S.C. legislature declaring the Tariff of Abomination null and void in that state.
Grand Jury
Body of 16-23 jurors who hears complaints and accusations in criminal cases and approves an indictment if there is not evidence against the accused person (2 words).
91
Number of federal district courts.
3/4
Vote of states to ratify an amendment to the Constitution.
14
Amendment which gave African Americans citizenship in the country as well as the state where they lived; years' residence required for President.
Constituents
People represented by Senators and Representatives.
538
Total number of electoral votes.
12
Amendment which says the electors will vote once for President and then once for Vice President.
3/5
Agreement at the Constitutional Convention to include this number of slaves in determining a states' population.
9
Citizenship requirement for Senator (years); number of justices on the Supreme Court.
2/3
Vote of Congress or state conventions required to propose an amendment to the Constitution.
435
Total number of Representatives.
President Pro Tempore
Presiding officer in the Senate when VP is absent.
Bill of Attainder
Law that condemns person without benefit of trial.
1
Amendment that guarantees the five basic freedoms.
23
Amendment which gave D.C. three electoral votes.
24
Amendment which abolished the poll tax as a requirement for voting.
Philadelphia
Site of the Constitutional Convention.
20
Amendment which gives the date of the Presidential inauguration.
Natural Born
Citizenship requirement for President (2 words).
5
Amendment which states the rights of someone accused of a crime.
Override
To reverse a Presidential veto.
Ex Post Facto Law
Law that would make an act a criminal offense after it was committed (4 words).
7
Citizenship requirement for Representative (years).
6
Amendment which guarantees a person a speedy trial by jury; term of office (years) for Senator.
Separation of Powers
Principle that each of the three branches has its own powers and responsibilities (3 words).