Who: Speaker Effects. (reliability, charisma, captivating, easy to listen to, confidence, status)
What: Message Effects. (rationalizing, appeal to emotion, appeal to logic, make it seem well rounded, acknowledging both sides).
To Whom: Audience Effects. (intelligence to persuadability is a U-shaped graph, easiest people to persuade are average IQ. Really low and really high IQ re hard to persuade).
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Petty + Cacioppo, 1986
Proposes two routes to persuasion:
- Central Route Processing: Effortful processing, attends to logic, quality argument. Must have motivation and must have ability. Results of attitude change will be enduring, resistant, and predictive of behavior
- Peripheral Route Processing: Effortless processing, attend to peripheral cues (things not about the argument but are peripheral to argument). Using positive or negative cues to persuade. Unrelated to logic.
EX: Persuading to buy a car.
Central route: talking about insurance, safety rating, reviews, fuel efficiency, etc.
Peripheral route: color, nicer than neighbors, speed appeal, etc.