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100 terms

Psych Final

STUDY
PLAY
Puberty
consists of the physiological changes in the sex organs and reproductive system that occur during adolescence, lasting about four years.
vagina
Which of the following is a female primary sex characteristic?
1 out of 1,500
What is the incidence of children born as intersexed, or intersexual, individuals?
Gender typing
is the process by which people learn their culture's preferences and expectations for proper "masculine" and "feminine" behaviors.
they preferred male play activities
Studies of genetically male children who were surgically altered to appear as females found that
gender identity disorder
Fifteen year old Latisha feels that she has been a "boy trapped in a girl's body" for as long as she can remember. She is learning about sexual reassignment surgery from her mother, who supports her daughter after taking her to a doctor who diagnosed her as having
In these studies, the girls were found to be tomboys during early childhood.
Based on the studies of infant girls who were exposed to androgens before birth, which of the following statements is true?
tomboy
Which term has the most negative connotation in our culture?
social learning theory
Sue sees her mother knitting a sweater. Later, Sue takes out a ball of yarn and some knitting needles from her mother's supplies and tries to do the same. This is a good example of the ________ theory of gender development.
gender schema theory
The tendency of children to develop a mental pattern for being male or female in much the same way they develop other concepts, such as "dog," "bird," and "big," can best be explained b
gender stereotyp
is a concept about males or females that assigns various characteristics to them on the basis of nothing more than being male or female.
emotional
Which characteristic is NOT usually considered part of the male gender stereotype?
benevolent sexism
The acceptance of positive stereotypes regarding gender can lead to
androgynous
Sam is a father of two children and has a career as a professor at a university. He is nurturant and sensitive to his children's needs, able to express emotions outwardly, independent and assertive, and thinks problems through calmly and logically. Sam is a good example of a person who is
are staying the same
Recent studies have shown that cognitive differences between boys and girls
orgasm
In which of the phases of sexual response does the genital area undergo a series of muscular contractions?
plateau
The second phase of the sexual response is
resolution
In which phase does the refractory period occur for men
sexual orientation was on a continuum
Kinsey believed that
homosexual
Raphael has only dated men in the past. He stated that in high school, he began to notice that he was only attracted to men. As a result, he has been in a relationship with a man for the past 5 years and is very happy. Raphael is considered ________ in terms of his sexual orientation
X
Hamer and colleagues discovered that homosexuality may be transmitted by genes on the ________ chromosome which is passed from mother to son, not father to son. a. X
organic dysfunctions
Sexual problems that result from psychological causes are referred to as _
dyspareunia
Shanice suffers pain during intercourse. She is suffering from
fetishism
Someone whose focus of sexual interest is an object, such as shoes or underwear, or a part of the body, such as feet, has a condition known as
exhibitionism
Someone who likes to expose normally clothed parts of the body to unsuspecting and typically unwilling viewers has a condition known as
voyeurism
Keisha is preparing to go swimming at the city pool. She is putting on her swim suit in a dressing room provided by the park, and notices that someone is looking over the dressing room walls. She grabs her towel and quickly runs from the dressing room and sees a man running away. After police are called, she is informed that she is the 4th victim of this "peeping Tom" over the past week. The "peeping Tom" is likely to suffer from
fetishism
Lammont admits that he has a "thing" for women's toes. When looking for a girlfriend, he often immediately looks at the woman's toes to see if they are manicured and painted. He admits that he also becomes sexually aroused when sucking on his girlfriend's toes. He admits that he has trouble becoming aroused unless he is able to touch, suck, or view his girlfriend's toes. Lammont is likely to fit the criteria for having a
human papillomavirus (HPV)
Warty growths on the genitalia are caused by
AIDS
Which of the following is caused by a virus?
tears
AIDS CANNOT be transmitted through
Risks for contracting STDs are reduced if you use condoms and have monogamous sex with an
uninfected partner.
Mia is 15 years old and at a stage in her life where she is considering having sex for the first time. She comes to meet with you since you are a school nurse and she wants to find out how to protect herself from pregnancy and disease. What advice would you want to give her based on research?
children.
Pedophiles are sexually aroused by
paraphilias
Exhibitionism, fetishism, pedophilia, and transvestism are all examples of
catastrophes
Which of the following is the term used to describe unpredictable, large-scale events that create a great deal of stress and feelings of threat?
acute stress disorder
Ali, a war veteran, has had nightmares, flashbacks, and anxiety attacks for the past three years. Ali is most likely suffering from
minor annoyances of everyday life
The term hassles refers to
pressure
Jacob's father has always wanted him to be a lawyer. He has encouraged him to get good grades, graduate college earlier than his peers, and work as hard as he can. Jacob does not care about going to law school, but he does so to please his father. Jacob is responding to
approach-approach
For someone who likes both movies and concerts, choosing between going to one or the other represents an ________ conflict.
avoidance-avoidance
A conflict in which a person must choose between two undesirable routes to a goal or goals is called
approach-avoidance
Ken wants to go to law school because he believes being a lawyer will bring him prestige and a good income. However, he is not sure he should attend because he is very concerned about the hard work law school will involve and the money it will cost. Ken is faced with a(n) ________ conflict
sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system
When the teacher was handing out this test, you noticed that your respiration rate and heartbeat increased, your palms got sweaty, and your hand shook a little. Your pretest behaviors were triggered by the ________. Upon completion of the exam, your body returned to its normal state by way of the
the sympathetic nervous system is activated and adrenal glands release hormones
During the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome,
resistance
A person in the ________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome may feel better even though he or she continues to secrete hormones to help the body fight a stressor
Stress compromises the body's immune system, leaving a person vulnerable to illness.
Which of the following statements best encapsulates the relationship between stress and physical illness according to psychoneuroimmunologists?
secondary appraisal
Mary just received a traffic ticket but decided it is not worth being upset about. Mary just made a
Type S
People who respond to life events with a laid back, relaxed, easygoing attitude, and are slow to anger are said to have a ________ personality
hostility
Which type A personality characteristic is the key trait that is linked to heart disease?
hardy
Tad seems to thrive when faced with difficult challenges and usually feels in control of his life. He would probably be labeled a ________ personality.
emotion-focused coping
Edgar is learning deep-breathing techniques to reduce anxiety about having been robbed at knifepoint. This is an example of
denial
Refusing to acknowledge a threatening situation is a defense mechanism called
Stress
is the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are threatening or challenging.
eustress
Professor Willoughby assigns his class a term paper that is to make up 30% of their final grade. The students are given clear guidelines about what is expected in this assignment, and are given two months to complete the assignment. Because students know that this paper is important but not the only thing upon which their grades will be based, this assignment would be likely to cause
Frustration
occurs when a person is blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need
Scapegoats
are habitual targets of displaced aggression.
less; greater
The ________ control one has, the ________ the degree of stress
immune system
The system of cells, organs, and chemicals of the body that responds to attacks from diseases and injuries is called the
Aggressive
people typically do not live as long as the average life expectancy
optimist; pessimist
When looking at a glass that is neither completely full nor completely empty, a(n) ________ might say "that glass is half full," while a(n) ________ might say " no, that glass is half empty!
downward social comparison
Which of the following is NOT one of the methods that people should use to keep a positive outlook?
downward social comparison
Matthew compares his performance at work with that of a co-worker who is less competent than himself. When he engages in this behavior, he feels better and experiences a boost to his self-esteem. Matthew is using ________ to maintain an optimistic outlook.
social support system
What is the term for the network of friends, family members, neighbors, coworkers, and others who can offer help to a person in need?
problem-focused coping
Working a second job to pay off credit cards is an example of
repression
Soldiers who break down in the battlefield often cope with their situation by blocking out all memories of their behavior and their situation. This phenomenon is an example of
projection
Placing one's own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts actually belonged to those others and not to oneself, is called
reaction formation
Maria is unconsciously attracted to her best friend, Lydia, but she constantly talks about how much she hates homosexuals. According to Freud's theory of psychological defense mechanisms, Maria is demonstrating
groupthink
The prime minister notices that her closest advisors never seem to disagree with her or with each other on a lot of important issues, such as arms control. She worries that she is not getting the pros and cons of different issues because her advisors are engaging in
foot-in-the-door
Many people hang up on telemarketers, but others will listen politely to their pitches even if they are not interested in the product. Telemarketers know that anyone who agrees to listen to a pitch is more likely to buy the product, thanks to the ________ phenomenon
lowball
"Jeremy, can you possibly give me a ride to the airport this Sunday," your friend Ben asks. Not thinking that this is a big deal, you agree to do this favor for Ben. "Oh, that's great! Thanks so much. And by the way, I forgot that the plane leaves at 8:30 am so I'll have to be be at the airport by 6:30 am. Pick me up at 6:00. See you then," Ben adds. You are still likely to do the favor for Ben because you have just been a victim of the ________ technique
norm of reciprocity and foot-in-the-door
You are in the market for a new car. You go from dealer to dealer and find they all follow the same procedure: every salesperson offers you a soda and asks you to take a test drive. Which two psychological techniques are behind the offer of the soda and the test drive?
door-in-the-face
"Mommy, mommy, mommy," your young son asks frantically. "Can we please buy a new PlayStation®3 console with all of the games and the wireless controllers so that we don't have to sit near the television?" "No," you reply, "we can't afford to buy all of that!" Seemingly unperturbed by your reject, your son comes back with "Then can we just buy one new game for our PlayStation®2?" "Okay, I guess so," you answer, not realizing that your son has taken a social psychology class and has just used the ________ technique to get what he wanted.
No one single personality trait has been found to be associated with high levels of obedience.
Analysis of the participants in Milgram's obedience study has indicated that which personality trait was highly related to the willingness to be obedient?
social facilitation
What is the term for an improvement in performance caused by the perception that others are watching?
social loafing
A teacher decides against assigning group projects in which all group members get the same grade. What social psychological phenomenon might the teacher be concerned about?
goals
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major components of attitudes?
behavioral
Roberta is trying to decide whether or not to vote for a political candidate. Based on what she has read about him, she has concluded that he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees with his political positions. Also, she trusts him and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she likes him so much that she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her sending a donation to the campaign represents the ________ component of her attitude toward him.
peripheral-route
A local car insurance company advertises their products with television commercials. During those spots, there are flashy lights, attractive dancers wearing skin-tight outfits, and local celebrities talking about how they have that company's insurance. The advertisement does not, however, mention any of the features or costs associated with the product. This company is attempting to earn customers through which path of processing?
central-route processing
When George Bush said, "Everything in Iraq is going as planned. Trust me, I am the president," he was using what form of the elaboration likelihood model?
continuing the behavior in spite of the conflicting thoughts
Which one of the following activities will NOT reduce cognitive dissonance?
reduction of cognitive dissonance
You've always disliked a particular coworker who strikes you as dishonest, but he is nice to you and does you favors, so you become friendly with him despite your misgivings. One day you learn that he stole personal items from your desk. You now decide to discontinue the friendship. Your negative attitude toward this coworker is strengthened through
stereotyping
The issue of racial profiling has been a controversial topic in the United States for many years, and it was particularly widespread after the events of September 11, 2001. When an individual engages in profiling and assumes that one person must possess certain qualities because of their race or ethnicity, (s)he is engaging in
attribution
Your best friend has been acting rather cool toward you lately. As you try to figure out why, you are engaging in the process called
They are making attributions.
A group of Ray's friends have been waiting for Ray for an hour. One says, "He never remembers anything." Another says, "He's probably caught in rush hour traffic." What are these friends doing that might be of interest to a social psychologist?
he made a dispositional attribution
Alex is standing in line at Wal-Mart waiting to pay for his purchases. A man cuts in front of the line and drops his items on the counter. Alex says to his friend, "That man is incredibly rude." A social psychologist who is within earshot jots down a note so she can use the example in class. What does she write concerning Alex?
discrimination
Luther operates a small nightclub that specializes in soul music and features up-and-coming African American singing groups. He actively discourages white couples from coming in and always gives them the worst seats if they insist on being admitted. Luther's behavior is BEST described as an example of
realistic conflict
There is currently a long history of fighting between the Israelis and Palestinians, and many attempts to resolve these conflicts have failed. According to the ________ theory, the prejudice and discrimination that exists between the two groups will continue to rise as the conflict over limited land in Israel continues.
My name is Antonio and I belong to the best fraternity on campus.
Which of the following statements supports the idea of social identity?
similarity
"Birds of a feather" is a phrase that refers to
infatuation
Which type of love is defined as passion only
empty love
Which type of love is defined as commitment only?
Diffusion of responsibility is the reason most people do not respond.
In a crowded mall parking lot, dozens of people hear a female voice yell, "He's killing me!" Yet no one calls the police. What is the reason for the lack of action, according to Darley and Latané?
intensity of shock delivered.
In the Milgram experiment on obedience, the dependent variable was the:
a group's power because of wanting to be accepted.
Normative social pressure is based on:
illegal
Conformity tends to be higher when a task is
Obedience
is a response to pressure exerted by norms that are generally left unstated.
65
In Milgram's studies about __________ percent of his subjects administered the entire range of electric shocks.
of diffusion of responsibility.
A major reason why people won't help when there are many bystanders is because
fundamental attribution error
What is the tendency to make internal attributions when we succeed and external attributions when we fail?
"risky shift"
Groups tend to move people to believe more strongly in the position that they first held. This is called
an in-group
Any group of people who feel a sense of solidarity and exclusivity in relation to nonmembers is
altruistic
Behavior directed at helping others with no thought or expectation of personal gain is called __________ behavior.