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AAROM/AROM/Stretching pgs 106-108
Terms in this set (17)
A movement that is produced by the patient through active muscular contraction with some assistance from an external force
What are some indications for AAROM?
1. The patient is unable to fully contract a muscle (Paresis; pain)
2. Full activation of a muscle is contraindicated
3. Performed prior to initiating active movement
Movement that is produced by the patient through active muscular contraction without any external assistance
What are some indications for AROM?
1. Patient is able to contract a muscle, but demonstrates weakness
2. Performed prior to initiating resistance training to teach the desired movement
A therapeutic technique used to improve joint ROM and muscle flexibility by increasing the extensibility of the musculotendinous unit and connective tissues
What is an indication for stretching?
Decreased joint ROM or decreased muscle flexibility
What are some contraindications for stretching?
1. joint inflammation,
2. during soft tissue healing (following a tendon repair),
3. ROM limited by bone on bone contact,
4. recent fracture,
6.hypomobility that allows for improved function (tenodesis grip),
7. acute pain associated with stretching
The ability of soft tissue to return to its previous length after a stretch is no longer applied
A time-dependent property of soft tissue that results in resistance to stretch when it is initially applied, but allows for tissue elongation as the stretch is held for longer durations. As with elasticity, the tissue will return to its previous length after the stretch is no longer applied.
A property of soft tissue that allows for tissue elongation even after a stretch is no longer applied
A graphic representation that depicts the relationship between the amount of force (stress) applied to CT and the amount of deformation (strain) it experiences
Due to the viscoelastic property, soft tissue that is stretched for a sustained duration will elongate and not return to its original length after the load has been removed. The principle of creep is the basis for stretching
The longer the stretching force is maintained, the more the tension within the tissue decreases, therefore less force is required to maintain the same tissue length
Involves placing the muscle at its maximal length and holding the position against an external force for a prolonged period of time. Characterized by low intensity and long duration. It is considered to be the safest form of stretching and results in the greatest gains in tissue extensibility. This form of stretching leads to less activation of the muscle spindles (as compared to ballistic stretching) and thus less resistance to stretch. Though there is no consensus for the optimal duration of static stretching, 30 seconds is a commonly sited value that has been shown to result in significant ROM gains
Characterized by quick, jerky movements that result in a rapid change in muscle length. The muscle is placed near its end of ROM and then the patient bounces back and forth to place repetitive stretch on the muscle. (high intensity,short duration). Because this type of stretching occurs quickly, it activates the muscle spindles and results in greater resistance to stretch. Therefore, it is not as effective for improving tissue extensibility, though it may be more effective when preparing the muscles for athletic activity. More like to lead to muscle soreness and injury due to the high intensity of stretch force.
This stretching involves the patient actively moving a body segment to the end of range (but not beyond its limit) while the antagonist muscle relaxes and stretches. Unlike static stretching, the end-range movement is held only briefly and is performed repeatedly. Most commonly used as a "warm up" to prepare the body for athletic activities. It is more effective at preparing the body for explosive movements when compared to static stretching. This stretching emphasizes a movement based approach, while ballistic stretching emphasizes bouncing movements
Incorporates active muscle contractions into stretching techniques. Muscular contraction is thought to lead to muscle relaxation through the principles of autogenic or reciprocal inhibition and results in greater gains in muscle flexibility. Because these techniques exert their effects on muscle fibers, they are more effective at treating ROM limitations due to muscle spasm as opposed to CT tightness. Other theories for PNF's effects on improved flexibility include increased patient tolerance to the stretch and length changes secondary to the viscoelastic properties of muscle. Because this requires active muscular control from the patient, it is not an effective technique for patients with paralysis or spasticity. Common techniques include contract-relax, agonist contraction, and contract-relax with agonist contraction
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