159 terms

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civic engagement
Actively participating in community or public affairs, not only by voting, but also by keeping up with the news, discussing issues with fellow citizens, and participating in civic and volunteer activities
civic virtue
the attitudes and behaviors of good, ethical citizenship in a democracy
citizen-critic
a citizen educated to critically evaluate the claims, reasoning, and evidence he or she encounters in public deliberations
civic literacy
the historical, political, and cultural knowledge necessary to participate actively as a citizen in a democracy
plagiarism
taking all or part of your speech from a source without proper attribution
paraphrasing
summarizing or restating another person's ideas in your own words
ghostwriting
writing a speech for another person to deliver as his or her own
deliberating in good faith
debating and discussing controversial issues in a spirit of mutual respect, with a commitment to telling the truth, backing up arguments with sound reasoning and evidence, and remaining open to changing one's mind
demagoguery
Deceptive or manipulative speech, often relying upon the charismatic ethos of the demagogue and appealing to "dark" emotions like hatred or fear
hate speech
language that demeans or degrades whole classes of people based on their race, ethnicity, religion, or other characteristics
public deliberation
the discursive process through which people in a democracy articulate, explain, and justify their political opinions and policy preferences to their fellow citizens
transactional communication
the process of constructing shared messages or understandings between two or more individuals
encode
to put ideas or information into a particular format for transmission over a particular channel, as when a speaker chooses the specific language to communicate his or her ideas in a speech
decode
to interpret the verbal and nonverbal content of a message so as to give it meaning
noise
any interference that distorts or interrupts message flow within the communication process
captive audience
an audience that is required to attend a presentation
empathic listening
listening supportively to another with the goal of understanding his or her feelings or point of view
informational listening
listening in order to learn and expand knowledge
critical listening
listening analytically, carefully evaluating all that is said and assessing the relevance, accuracy, timeliness, and validity of the speaker's message
passivity syndrome
denying ones accountability as a listener and assuming that the burden of effective communication resides wholly with the speaker
stereotyping
making assumptions about someone based on such factors as race or gender without considering the person's individuality
glass ceiling
an invisible barrier of prejudices and discrimination that hampers one's ability to rise to the top of some organization or profession
active listening
channeling our energies and efforts so that we actively concentrate on the speaker's complete message
nonverbal communication
facial expressions, vocal qualities, and physical movements that reinforce or contradict ones verbal message
ethos
the ancient greek term for ethical proof, or the audiences perception of the speakers credibility, intelligence, and motives
temporal context
previous, current, and anticipated events that affect what can or should be said and how it might be received
communication apprehension
feelings of anxiety a speaker may experience before or during a public presentation
trait anxiety
internal anxiety that an individual brings to the speaking situation; not dependent on the specific situation
state anxiety
anxiety caused by worrisome factors in a specific speaking situation
feedback
constructive criticism, comments, and other helpful information about your speech give to you by your instructor, your peers, or other members of your audience
deep breathing
expanding the diaphragm to increase one's intake of air to assist with relaxation and enhance vocal delivery
isometric exercise
tensing a muscle and holding it for a short time, followed by complete relaxation of the muscle
aerobic exercise
physical activity that increases one's heart rate and respiration and, as a result, lessens tension
demographics
audience characteristics that can be analyzed statistically, such as age, gender, education, and group membership
target audience
those whom the speaker would most like to influence with the message
saliency
the level of interest or concern that our listeners have in a particular issue or topic
gender indentity
one's sense of sexual identity, of male and female tendencies and characteristics, as shaped by social norms and expectations that vary across cultures and change over time
socially constructed
the process by which roles and behaviors are judged as appropriate within different cultures with different cultural norms
racism
the prejudicial denial of the essential humanity of people of a particular race, often manifested in claims about the superiority and/or inferiority of particular races
ethnocentrism
belief that one's own racial or ethnic heritage is superior to all others
maslows hierarchy
a scale of human needs ranging from very basic physiological needs to higher-order psychological needs, such as the need for self-actualization
self-actualization needs
the desire to achieve to the fullest extent of our capabilities; the highest need level in Maslow's hierarchy
values
things that we consider good and desirable
attitudes
mental constructs that represent people's positive or negative views or feelings toward other people, places, things, or events
beliefs
the ideas or assumptions we have about what is true or factual in the world
loaded questions
biased questions, or questions phrased in such a way that they lead respondents to a particular answer
objectivity
the audience's perception of a speaker's honesty or fair-mindedness in considering diverse points of view
personal inventory
thinking about what you really know and care about in order to generate possible topics that are both meaningful to you and significant for your audience
objectivity
the audience's perception of a speaker's honesty or fair-mindedness in considering diverse points of view
general purpose
a speakers ultimate goal in speaking, whether that goal is to gain audience understanding, change minds and win agreement, motivate to action, or simply reinforce existing beliefs and values
specific purpose
a precise statement of how the speaker wants the audience to respond to his or her message, which serves to direct the research and construct the speech
informative speech
a speech whose goal is to help the audience gain understanding
persuasive speech
a speech that seeks to influence the beliefs, values, or actions of others or "make the case" for a new policy or program
working thesis
a tentative thesis, meant to articulate the overall idea being examined in a speech, that is formulated to guide one's investigation and writing
working outline
early drafts of your speech outline, representing your work in progress
informative literacy
understanding when information is needed and knowing how to locate, gather, and evaluate information and use it responsibly
Wikipedia
a free, online encyclopedia to which anyone can contribute information and whose accuracy cannot be effectively monitored
fair use
the doctrine in copyright law that allows for educators, scholars, and students to use limited amounts of copyrighted material for noncommercial purposes without obtaining formal permission
databases
immense, searchable collections of materials (indexes, abstracts, and full text) available in electronic form
worldcat
an electronic catalog of the holdings for more than 53,000 libraries from around the world
closed question
A question—often a "yes" or "no" question—in an interview or survey that restricts responses to a limited number of options
open question
a question in an interview or survey that allows for open ended responses and more detailed elaboration
supporting material
information that you present in your speech to substantiate and strengthen your main ideas
evidence
the available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid.
facts
data that can be verified through empirical observation
definitions
meanings provided for words that are unfamiliar to listeners or technical in nature
acronyms
abbreviated titles for places, organizations, plans, or objects, usually consisting of the first letters of the words in the full or complete title
persuasive definition
a definition that reflects the speaker's way of looking at a controversial subject
actual examples
real-life cases or specific instances
hypothetical examples
examples that describe actions or events that did not actually happen but that might or could plausibly occur
narrative example
an extended example that tells a story, based either on true experiences or on symbolism, perhaps in the form of proverbs
statistics
numerical method of interpreting large numbers of instances to display or suggest such factors as typicality, cause and effect, and trends
mean
the mathematical average
mode
the most frequently occurring number within a particular set of numbers
median
the number representing the middle point between the largest and the smallest numbers within a particular set of numbers
inferential statistics
statistics that generalize from a small group to a larger population, based on probability
sample
the portion of some larger population that we actually test, interview, otherwise gather information about in order to draw generalizations about the larger group
descriptive statistics
a statistic that quantifies or characterizes a dataset without drawing inferences about some larger problem
margin of error
the range of possible error associated with the sampling procedures used in inferential statistics
testimony
opinions, interpretations, or judgments quoted from other people, including personal testimony, lay testimony, and expert testimony
personal testimony
testimony based on your own personal experiences and beliefs
lay testimony
testimony based on the experiences of ordinary men and women whose direct experiences make their testimony compelling
expert testimony
testimony based on those whose expertise and experience make them especially trustworthy
prestige testimony
the views of a popular or famous person who, though not an expert, expresses a genuine commitment to the cause
chronological pattern
an organizational pattern in which ideas are arranged in a logical, time-based or sequential order
sequential pattern
an organizational pattern in which the various steps of a process or phenomenon are identified and discussed one by one
spatial pattern
an organizational pattern in which ideas are arranged according to their natural spatial and/or geographical relationships
categorical pattern
an organizational pattern in which several independent yet interrelated categories are used to advance a larger idea
climactic pattern
an organizational pattern in which the ideas being advanced in a speech are arranged so that they build in intensity
causal pattern
a organizational pattern in which ideas focus on causes or effects or are arranged to reveal cause-to-effect or effect-to-cause relationships
problem-solution pattern
an organizational pattern in which a problem is identified and one or more specific solutions are proposed
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
A method of organizing persuasive speeches that seek immediate action. The five steps of the motivated sequence are attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action.
narrative pattern
an indirect, organic organizational pattern that often uses a coherent series of stories to convey the main ideas of the speech
fidelity
narratives that seem authentic to listeners because they ring true with their own life experiences
spiraling narrative
a narrative pattern that builds in intensity from the beginning to the end of the speech
symmetry
using a balanced approach to developing and presenting ideas in a speech so that each idea is developed with a similar level of elaboration
primary effects
the presumed impact of placing the most compelling information or arguments first in a speech
recency effects
the presumed impact of saving the strongest argument or the most important information for near the end of a speech
transition
a word, phrase, or sentence that helps the audience perceive the relationship of ideas and the movement from one main idea to another
internal preview
a quick look ahead at what will be covered under one of the main points or within a particular section of a speech
internal summary
a brief review of what one has presented under a main point or within a particular section of a speech
signposts
words that alert listeners to where you are in your speech, particularly in relation to the speech's overall organization
rhetorical questions
questions posed by a speaker to stimulate audience interest and thought, not to solicit information or answers
preview
a glimpse of the major points one will be treating in a speech or in a section of a speech
formal outline
an outline in which ideas and their development are articulated completely and precisely, usually using full sentences
keyword outline
an abbreviated outline that serves as a speaker's notes during the delivery of a speech
style
a speakers choice and use of language
denotative meaning
meaning that is considered literal, objective, or universally accepted
connotative meaning
the subjective or emotional meanings associated with particular words or phrases
oral style
language that is chosen with a listener in mind, characterized by short, simple, straightforward sentences and familiar word choices and repetition; generally more informal/conversational than a written style
Techincal language
any language that has precise meaning within a particular field or endeavor
clichés
an overused expression
Repetition
repeating, word for word, elements presented in the message
restatement
rephrasing, in slightly different language or sentence construction, the key elements in a message
commenting modifiers
modifiers that attempt to boost the meaning of a word but reveal nothing new
defining modifiers
modifiers that provide new, needed information
sensory appeal
vivid language that attempts to evoke one of our five senses: seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, or feeling
figure of speech
stylistic devices, such as metaphor or personification, that heighten the beauty of ones language or make that language clearer, more meaningful, or more memorable
simile
A figurative comparison using the words like or as
metaphor
an implicit comparison, in which two dissimilar objects are compared
antithesis
a stylistic device in which two contrasting ideas are placed in opposition through the use of parallel phrases or clauses
irony
the use of language to imply a meaning that is the total opposite of the literal meaning of a word or expression
alliteration
a repetitive pattern of initial sounds in a sequence of words, used to gain attention and reinforce an idea
personification
a description of an inanimate form or thing as if it were human
oxymoron
an expression that presents, in combination, seemingly contradictory terms
rhetorical question
questions posed by a speaker to stimulate audience interest thought not to solicit information or answers
parallelism
the use of a series of sentences with similar length and structure to signify the equality of ideas
gender language
language that reinforces or perpetuates gender stereotypes
ethical delivery
speaking authentically, with respect for one's listeners and concern for their well-being
pitch
the highness or lowness of the voice on a musical scale
monotone
use of the same vocal pitch without variation
uptalking
a manner of speaking in which declarative sentences are uttered with a rising intonation as though they were questions
articulation
the clarity with which we enunciate words
pronunciation
the correctness with which we enunciate words
vocal mannerisms
vocal habits that distract the listener from focusing on the speaker's remarks
extemporaneous speaking
the presentation of a thoroughly prepared speech using an abbreviated set of speaking notes, often in the form of a keyword outline
impromptu speaking
casual, off-the-cuff delivery used when a speaker has little or no time for preparation
manuscript speaking
presenting a speech from a prepared text, often in formal ceremonial settings
memorized speech
a prepared speech presented from memory, without the assistance of speaking notes
presentational aids
visual or audiovisual materials that help clarify, support, and/or strengthen the verbal content of a speech
graphical icons
a symbol, such as a dollar sign, which is widely understood and used in place of verbal representations
line graph
a graph in which one or more lines depict a trend or trends over time
y axis
the vertical axis on a coordinate plane
x axis
the horizontal axis on a coordinate plane
bar graph
a graph that uses vertical or horizontal bars to show comparisons among two or more items
pictograph
a graph that relies on a set of self-explanatory icons to depict growth or decline over time or between situations
pie graph
a graph in the shape of a circle in which segments of the circle depict the relative size of particular features or elements within the whole
visual literacy
the ability to think critically and discerningly about visual images and depictions
bulleted list
A list of key words or phrases, presented one-by-one during a presentation and marked by a typographical symbol such as an arrow, a circle, a square, or a diamond
fair use
the doctrine in copyright law that allows for educators, scholars, and students to use limited amounts of copyrighted material for noncommercial purposes without obtaining formal permission
flip chart
a oversized writing tablet that speakers can place on a tripod for use during a presentation, interactive workshop, or brainstorming
poster board
a type of display board, made of thin cardboard, suitable for drawings or for affixing flat, printed material or small objects
prop
visual or audio material that enlivens a presentation but is not a necessary element
sans serif
a style of typeface lettering devoid of any embellishments that might blur the separation between letters in a word or aline of text
washout
the reduction in brilliance of an image being projected onto a screen due to interference by light
speech of description
an informative speech intended to provide a clear picture of a place, event, person, or thing
speech of demonstration
an informative speech intended to teach an audience how something works or how to do something
speech of explanation
an informative speech intended to help an audience understand complicated, abstract, or unfamiliar concepts or subjects
informative oral report
an informative presentation, often technical in nature, intended to assist a group's performance or decision making
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