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WWI, 1920's, 1930's

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Nationalism(*)
A feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward one's country
Militarism
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war
Imperialism(*)
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
Balance of Power
The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful.
Triple Alliance(*)
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
Triple Entente(*)
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
"Miracle of the Marne"
Battle of the Marne is also called the ......... because of the unexpected victory of the Allied powers, in France in September 1914. Pushed Germany back from move towards Paris and set the stage for trench warfare on the Western Front.
No mans land
Territory between rival Trenches, very dangerous
Verdun
France vs. Germany, France led by Nivelle. Poorly defended, Germans lost, lost 700,000 men, initiated by Germany in which they hoped to crush France and taken them out of the war.No territory was gained;
Battle of the Somme
A 1916 WWI battle between German and British forces. Ending in a stalemate, the bitter three-month conflict is notable for the high number of casualties- 1.25 million men killed or wounded - and the first use of tanks in warfare.
Zeppelin
large gas-filled balloon (used by Germany to bomb England)
Lafayette Escadrille
French Air Force - many young American men volunteered to fly for France before the U.S. entered the war
Lusitania(*)
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
The Sussex Pledge
The ultimatum said that Germans must stop sinking ships or the US will break their neutrailty (and almost certainly enter the war). The Pledge was that the Germans promised to stop submarine warfare.
The Zimmerman Letter(*)
A telegraph from Germany to Mexico, offering them US land if they fight for the German cause.
The American Expeditionary Force
the name for the American fighting force sent to France in WWI
Doughboys
A nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during WWI
The Russian Revolution(*)
was when the czar setpped down in 1917 because so many Russians were angry. Russians weren't getting enough food which caused riots which caused the revolution
Bolsheviks
A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917.
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
Treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
Chateau- Thierry
american halt of the german offensive, first significant engagement of the American troops in a European war
Belleau Wood
Site of American victory against the Germans in France in 1918
The Argonne Forest
In the last months of World War I, the Allies launched a 200-mile attack against the Germans. America vs the Germans, helped end the war
Armistice
A temporary peace agreement to end fighting.
Wilson's Fourteen Points(*)
- diplomacy, freedom of the seas, lower tariffs, reductions in armaments, decolonization, evacuate troops from Europe, President Wilson's Peace proposal in 1918 stressed national self-determination and the rights of the small countries. Freedom of the seas and free trade. Clemenceau said, "God only had ten."
The League of Nations(*)
Located in Geneva, Switzerland, it was established in order to make sure war didn't break out again. The United States Senate did not approve Wilson's plan to join because they thought the terms were too harsh on Germany.
The Treaty of Versailles(*)
Refused to allow either defeated German or Communist Russia to participate in peace conference negotiations, forced Germany to sign a war-guilt clause that was used to justify imposing large war reparations payments; changed map of Europe, created league of nations, left legacy of bitterness
Archduke Franz Ferdinand (*)
Archduke of Austria Hungary assassinated by a Serbian in 1914. His murder was one of the causes of WW I.
Baron Von Richtofen
"Red Baron" most famous German ace and shot down 80 planes
Eddie Rickenbacker
American "Flying Ace" that had 26 kills
Billy Mitchell
American general who supported the developement of air power in the military, U.S. Army officer who was court-martialed for his outspoken views and
John J. Pershing
American General who led the forces to capture Pancho Villa.
Lenin
Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
Marshal Foch
The quiet Frenchman who became the supreme commander of the Allied forces during Germany's attack on the Western front in World War I; his axiom was, "To make war is to attack."
Alvin York
killed 25 machine-gunners and captured 132 German soldiers when his soldiers took cover; won Congressional Medal of Freedom
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
The Big Four
Italy, France, England, and the U.S. 4 powers who met at Versallies to discuss peace
Isolationism(*)
A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
The Washington conference
International agreement to reduce the size of the Naval forces.
The Five Power Treaty
Included US, UK, Japan, France and Italy 1. They agreed to limit the production of capital ships US/UK = 5 Japan=3 France/Italy = 1.7 2.They agreed not to build any naval bases or forts in the Pacific except Hawaii
The Nine Power Treaty
This treaty between US, Britain, France, Japan, Italy, Belgium, China, the Netherlands, and Portugal would guarantee China's independence and territorial integrity and restate the "Open Door Policy". They want China to open their doors to open trading with all countries, and they will help guarantee its territorial integrity. By the 1930s there will be violating the treaties from all nations.
The Kellogg-Briand Treaty
In 1928, 15 countries signed this which renounced war as a national policy. Although, it was broken quickly because it couldn't be reinforced.,treaty that intended to outlaw war
Model T,Tin Lizzie
First mass produced vehicle, nickname
19th Amendment(*)
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
18th Amendment(*)
Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Repealed by 21st amendment
The Volstead Act (*)
enforced the 18 Amendment which forbade the manufacture, distribution and sale of alcohol
KKK
Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.
Scopes Monkey Trial
1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism
Evolution
Change in species over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
Origin of the Species
Book written by Charles Darwin in 1859.
Speakeasies
An illegal bar where drinks were sold, during the time of prohibition. It was called a Speakeasy because people literally had to speak easy so they were not caught drinking alcohol by the police.
Bootleggers
Smugglers of illegal alcohol during the Prohibition era
St. Valentines Day Massacre
On February 14, 1929 Capone's men dressed as police officers raided a rival gang. They killed seven suspects execution style with their hands against the wall. Capone's men shot them with over 150 bullets., murder of unarmed bootleggers
The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound; this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer; Al Jolson.
Spirit of St. Louis
a custom airplane used by Charles Lindbergh to make the first solo, non-stop trans-Atlantic flight
Barnstormers
a pilot who travels around the country giving exhibits of stunt flying and parachuting, an actor who travels around the country presenting plays, Squadron 23
David Lloyd George
Britain's prime minister at the end of World War I whose goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries' staggering war losses
George Clemenceau
French Premier who wanted Germany stripped of all weapons vast German payments for costs of war, separate Rhineland to serve as buffer state France<>Germany
Vittoria Orlando
Italian prime minister involved in peace talks that created the Treaty of Versailles
Henry Ford(*)
American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Charles Darwin(*)
-Evolution by "natural selection" (the weaker die out) wrote On the Origin of Species
John Scopes(*)
Tennessee highschool teacher who violated a state law by teaching evolution and was put on trial
Clarence Darrow
A famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. He caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when Darrow questioned Bryan about the Bible.
William Jennings Bryant
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
Al Capone
A leader of organized crime in Chicago in the late 1920s, involved in gambling, the illegal sale of alcohol, and prostitution. He was sent to prison in the 1930s for income tax evasion.
Babe Ruth
He was a famous baseball player who played for the Yankees. He helped developed a rising popularity for professional sports. "Home Run King"
Bobby Jones
Won almost every golf championship in the 1920's
Charles Lindbergh(*)
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
Knute Rockne
Greatest coach of Notre Dame football. Credited w/ the forward pass.
Black Tuesday(*)
October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.
The Great Depression(*)
a time period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment
Hooverville(*)
Shanty towns that the unemployed built in the cities during the early years of the Depression; the name given to them shows that thte people blamed Hoover directly for the Depression.
The New Deal(*)
1933-1937 Government sponsored programs implemented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to revitalize the economy and alleviate poverty and despair caused by the Depression.
Fireside Chats
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
21st Amendment(*)
Amendment which ended the Prohibition of alcohol in the US, repealing the 18th amendment
Boondoggling
made-up work of the New Deal of little value
WPA
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
CCC
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
FHA
(Federal Housing Administration) Government agency that insures mortgage loans.
NIRA
1933 National Industrial Recovery Act. Recovery. Created NRA to enforce codes of fair competition, minimum wages, and to permit collective bargaining of workers.
The Wagner Act
Law passed in 1935 that aided unions by legalizing collective bargaining and closed shops, and by establishing the National Labor Relations Board, guaranteed the right to form unions and strike
FDIC
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions
SEC (security and exchange commission)
U.S. government agency that oversees securities transactions, activities of financial professionals and mutual fund trading to prevent fraud and intentional deception.
Social Security(*)
1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health under FDR
TVA
(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
Revenue Act
1935; raised taxes on the wealthy and corporations
AFL-CIO
1955 two larger labor unions united. American Federation Labor- Congress of Industrial Organization.
Fair Labor Standards
1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor
Herbert Hoover(*)
president who held office during the stock market collapse and the height of the Depression
Franklin D. Roosevelt(*)
1882-1945. 32nd President. Renounced right of U.S. to intervene in Latin America. Felt America should be "Arsenal of Peace" at onset of WWII. Was "anti-imperialist" and sought to end European colonialism. Gave "Infamy Speech" and declared war on Japan in 1941.
John Maynard Keynes(*)
British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption
Red Grange
Outstanding football player at University of Illinois, Galloping Ghost, played for Chicgo bears