• Drink water instead of sugary beverages
• No RDA set for total water (water from both fluids and solids)
o AI for adult men is 3.7L/day under normal conditions (3L fluids)
o AI for adult women is 2.7L/day under normal conditions (2.2 L fluids)
• Traditional advice is to consume at least eight 8-oz glasses of water daily (total 64 oz)
o Type of water ingested does not matter as long as treated and free from contaminants
o Should drink enough to avoid feelings of thirst and produce pale yellow urine
o If s/s of dehydration are present (dry mucous membranes, elevated heart rate, impaired mental function and motor control, increased body temperature), need to increase fluid intake
• Water intake should be increased if situations are present that or cause excess fluid loss (water intake should always equal water output)
o e.g. vomiting, diarrhea, fever, thermal injuries, fistulas, hemorrhage, and use of drainage tubes in addition to those listed above.
Inadequate phosphorus intake rarely results in abnormally low serum phosphorus levels (hypophosphatemia) because phosphorus is pervasive in the food supply and renal reabsorption of phosphorus increases to compensate for decreased intake. Since phosphorus is so widespread in food, dietary phosphorus deficiency is usually seen only in cases of near-total starvation. Other individuals at risk of hypophosphatemia include alcoholics.
S/S-symptoms of phosphorus deficiency may include loss of appetite, anxiety, bone pain, fragile bones, stiff joints, fatigue, irregular breathing, irritability, numbness, weakness, and weight change. In children, decreased growth and poor bone and tooth development may occur.
• Heme iron (animal products)
o Meats, fish, poultry
• Nonheme iron (plant products)
o grains, vegetables, legumes, nuts
The bioavailability differs between heme and nonheme iron. Approximately 15% of heme iron is absorbed by the body when intake is sufficient and need is not increased (absorption can be increased to up to 50% in times of increased needs such as pregnancy, growth such as childhood, or iron deficiency). The absorption of heme iron is affected only by need, and not by dietary factors.
The average absorption rate of nonheme iron consumed as a single food product is 1-7%, however, nonheme iron absorption can be greatly enhanced or inhibited by dietary factors. The absorption of nonheme iron is increased when it is consumed at the same time as vitamin C or heme iron. Nonheme iron absorption is impaired when consumed at the same time as coffee, tea, calcium, legumes, or oxalates (found in spinach, chard, berries, and chocolate).
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world, affecting more than 30% of the world's population. In the U.S. it is estimated to affect approximately 10% of the population.
Risk factors include those with heavy blood loss (could be from heavy menstrual cycles, trauma, peptic ulcer, GI bleed, a hiatal hernia, a colon polyp or colorectal cancer) or those in a growth period where iron needs are increased (e.g. infancy, adolescence).
S/S-iron deficiency anemia results, which can manifest as fatigue, impaired cognitive function, or pallor (pale appearance to the skin).
worldwide, iodine deficiency is a major problem and is the leading cause of cognitive impairment
S/S- When thyroid hormone levels are too low (hypothyroidism), the body's cells can't get enough thyroid hormone and the body's processes start slowing down. As the body slows, the patient may notice that he/she feels cold, tires more easily, experiences dry skin, becomes forgetful and depressed, or experiences constipation. A goiter (enlarged thyroid) may develop. Iodine deficiency is especially important in women who are pregnant or nursing their infants. Severe iodine deficiency in the mother has been associated with miscarriages, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and congenital abnormalities in their babies. Children of mothers with severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy can have mental retardation and problems with growth, hearing, and speech.