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Terms in this set (48)
According to Mars, what is the driving force of history [as well as of religion, philosophy, and all other types of theory]?
Not criticism, but revolution is the driving force of history.
What does Marx believe to be the shortcoming of all previous historiography? what is the shortcoming of German historiography? And what is the shortcoming of English and French historiography?
That it negated the real basis of history---economic determinism. English and French historiography was driven by political illusion. German was driven be religious illusion.
Explain what Marx means when he states: "The ideas of the ruling class are, in every age, the ruling ideas."
That ideas don't exist alone in themselves. That rule come from the superstructure power of the ruling class.
What characterizes the general character of the social, political and spiritual process of life?
the mode of production
List the four progressive epochs on the economic formation of society
The Asiatic, the ancient, the feudal, and the modern bourgeois modes of production
List the three stages of development of the proletariat and indicate the peculiar characteristics.
1. Proletariat fights 2. Proletariat organizes a government 3. revolution and the elimination of ruling class.
what is indispensable in the revolution of the proletariat?
the destruction of the private property and taking over means of production.
What makes the revolution of the proletariat singular?
in that its s the movement of the immense majority in interest of the majority.
Please interpret Marx's assertion: "The tradition of all the dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brain of the living."
When men make their own history, their attempts are molded by spirits and traditions of the past. Example Paul to Luther.
What does Marx mean when he states that the French Revolution performed "the task of unchaining and setting up modern bourgeois society."
Unchaining: knocked the feudal basis to pieces and moved off the feudal head which had grown on it. Setting up: created inside France the conditions, under which alone free competition could be developed, properly exploited, swept feudalism to set up Bourgeois society.
In what sense was the Revolution of 1848 at faux revolution
In that it looked back to the old ways of doing things. It looked to the old traditions of their forefathers.
Explain the meaning of the statement bade by Marx, "the social revolution of the nineteenth century cannot draw its poetry from the past, but only from the future?"
the revolutionaries must ignore the style and ideas of their predecessors and think for themselves.
How does Marx vie the Febuary Revolution?
it went backwards instead of forwards.
What, in Marx's opinion, constitutes the main difference between the "bourgeois revolution" and the "proleterian revolution?"
Bourgeois revolutions move from success to success, there is a series of dramatic, sparkling events, ecstacy, and soon it reforms to its former condition. Proleterian revolutions constatntly criticise themselves bu in the end grow strong and irreversable.
What does Marx regard to be the three periods of the Revolution of 1848?
1)The Febuary period; may 4, 1848, to May 28, 1879;
2) The period of the constitution of the republic, or of the Constituent National Assembly
3) the period of the constitutional republic or of the constitutional republic or o the legislative national assembly.
What type of France did Louis Napoleon promise the French nation?
one of progress and tranquility
How have the three strains of monarchism in France----the Borbons, the Orleans, and the Bonaparts---differed as dynasties?
Bourbons were the dynasty of big landed property and just as the Orleans were the dynasty of money, so the Bonaparts are a dynasty of the peasants---the mass of French people
How does Marx view the bourgeois society of the United States of America?
Classes exist but in a more fluid state."Though classes exist, they have not yet become fixed, but continually change the interchange their elements in a constatne flux,
What, according to Marx, is the ultimate fate of small-holding peasants?
to support the dictator
What conclusion does Marx reach in his article "The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon regarding the small-holding peasants?"
they will join and overthrow the bourgeois order
This conception of history... rests on the exposition of the real process of production, starting out from the simple material production of life, and on the comprehension of the form of intercourse connected with and created by this mode of production, i.e. of civil society in its various stages as the basis of all history, and also in its action as the State."
"What the bourgeoisie therefore produces, above all, are its own gravediggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable."
"Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly encountered, given and transmitted from the past."
What wer ethe major limitations of the nineteenth-century historiography?
Over concentration on the "true fact" and lacked "soul"
What changes have occurred in historiography according to Arnaldo Momigliano and endorsed by Hobsbawm?
1) turned to social-economic history
2) no more "ideas" as a explanation of history
3)now in terms of social forces
4) difficult to speak of direction of progress.
What does Hobsbawm regard as the most significant historiographical change in the century following Marx?
Materialism. The importance of the economic basis of historical development...humanity as a succession of socioeconomic systems
What does Hobsbawm regard to Positivism's major shortcoming?
It had little to say about he phenomena that characterizes human society
What aspect of Marx's historical thought remains most controversial, even in some instances among Marxists?
Marx's specific model of historcical development including the role of class, conflicts, the succession fo socio economic formations in the mechanism of the transicion from one to the other
What is Hobsbawm's thesis in this essay?
The chief value of Marx for historians today lies in his statements about history as distinct from his statements from society in general. History transforms into one of the social sciences.
What is the relationship between Marx and the structural-functionalist theory of society?
Has good claims to be the first of th set theory. Differs in that it insists on a hierchy of social phenomena and the existance in any society of interna ltensions
According to Engles, what was Marx's great accomplishment?
discovery of the law of evolution in human history
What conclusion does Hobsbawm reach in his essay. What does he regard to be the major shortcomings in Marxist historiography?
Marx's approach is still the only one which enables us to explain the entire span of human history. Marxist schools and revolutions that break orthodoxy?
What is ironic about speaking about Marx as a historian?
He himself did not write much of history as historians understand it.
What does Habsbawm reagard as the major limitation of Marxist historical thinking?
That they want to prove a priori that communism is the inevitable result of historical development. He writes history backwards.
What conclusion does Hosbawn offer regarding religion and capitalism?
That capitalism came from protestantism.
Does Hobsbawm regard Marx as an economic determinist? Explain your answer.
no. economic determinism is not historical materialism. There is a distinction between the two.
What was Marx's unique significance for historians and who was his only real rival as a theoretical influence on historians.
Max Weber....he wrote about the protestant ethic an the spirit of capitalism....he wanted to write history as a whole
Hobsbawm provides us with four essential points which summarize Marx's impact on the writing of history.What are they?
1)Marx's influence on the non-secialist countries is undoubtedly greater among historians today
2)Marxist history takes Marx as its starting point and not as its point of arrival
3)Marxist history is today plural
4) Marxist history today cant be isolated from the remainder of historical research
Science is a dialogue between views based upon a common method. It only ceases to be science when there is no method for deciding which o the contending view is wrong or less fruitful. Unfortunately this is often the case in history, but by no means on the Marxist history."
[History is] man's capacity to udnerstand how the world has come to be what it is today, and how mankind can advance to a better future."
What famous eighteenth-century English writer regarded history as the mere industrious collection and arrangement o facts?"
Dr. Samuel Johnson
What constitutes the "modern condition" in historigraphical terms?
Crisis in the west...no mere history of progress or pride
What constitutes the atrtraction of Marxist historical writing?
divides lessons fro mthe old reign of history
What does Trever-Roper find objectionable about Marxist historians?
They falsely claim monopoly over a historical approach which is in fact quite independent of both Marx and Marxism
What constitutes the difference between Marxist and bourgeois historians?
A marxist is one who extends the acceptance o the class struggle to the acceptance of the dictatorship of the proletariat
W@hgat doers the English revolution of 1640-60constitute to English Marxist historians such as a Christopher Hill and Eric Hobsbawm?
triumph of capitalism over feudalism and economic decline
List the four false prophesies of Marxism, which in Trever-Reper's mind convincingly discredit Marxist historiography
1) marx declared that within the captistalist system capitalists would become fewer and richer and the proleteriat larger and poorer 2) Communism would only first be destablished in fully industrialized ocuntries 3) failed to predict facism as an alternative to communism 4) dictatorship of proleteriat lead to a classless society
What do you regard to be the major shorcoming o the methodology of Marxist historiography?
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