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Biology Module 3 Study Guide

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Pseudopod
A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food
Nucleus
The region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell's main DNA
Vacuole
A membrane-bounded "sac" within a cell
Ectoplasm
The thin, watery cytoplasm near the plasma membrane of some cells
Endoplasm
The dense cytoplasm found in the interior of many cells
Flagellate
A protozoan that propels itself with a flagellum
Pellicle
A firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane
Chloroplast
An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis
Chlorophyll
A pigment necessary for photosynthesis
Eyespot
A light-sensitive region in certain protozoa
Symbiosis
a close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits
Mutualism
a relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association
Commensalism
a relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited
Parasitism
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed
Cilia
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
Spore
A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating
Plankton
Tiny organisms that float in the water
Zooplankton
Tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa
Phytoplankton
Tiny floating photosynthetic organisms, primarily algae
Thallus
The body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems
Cellulose
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms
Holdfast
A special structure used by an organism to anchor itself
Sessile colony
a colony that uses hold fasts to anchor itself to an object
Identify: cell is a green transparent blob and has pseudopods
subkingdom Protozoa,
phylum Sarcodina
Identify: cell is oval, transparent green and has a flagella
subkingdom Protozoa,
phylum Mastigophora
Identify: cells are red squiggles on a gray background
Subkingdom Protozoa,
Phylum Sporozoa
Identify: cell is light blue and has cilia
Subkingdom Protozoa,
Phylum Ciliophora
Identify: cells are hard and green and look like 4-leafed clover
Subkingdom Algae,
phylum Chlorophyta
Identify: cells look like assorted green shells
Subkingdom algae,
phylum Chrysophyta
Identify: cell is green with a little pink in the middle
subkingdom algae,
phylum pyrrophyta
Identify: green seaweed
subkingdom algae,
phylum phaeophyta
Identify: red seaweed
subkingdom algae,
phylum rhodophyta
Which of the following genera contain organisms with chloroplasts?
Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium, Spirogyra
Genera Euglena and Spirogyra
What is the function of a contractile vacuole? What is the difference between this and a food vacuole?
A contractile vacuole collects excess water and releases it into the cell's surroundings. It regulates the amount of water in the cell, while the food vacuoles store and hold food.
What is the difference between endoplasm and ectoplasm?
They both make up the cytoplasm, but ectoplasm is found near the plasma membrane while endoplasm is denser and is nearer to the center of the cell.
Name 3 pathogenic organisms from kingdom protista
Toxoplasma
Trypanosoma
Plasmodium
What are the main features that separate organisms into phylum Sporozoa?
These organisms form spores and have no real means of locomotion
Why do ciliates have two nuclei?
They require so much energy that they need one for reproduction and one for controlling metabolism
What is the difference between the conjugation that occurs in paramecium and that which occurs in bacteria?
each paramecium transfers DNA to the other, while only 1 bacterium transfers DNA to the other
Which phylum contains the organisms responsible for most of the photosynthesis on earth?
phylum Chrysophyta (which contains the dinoflagellates)
Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Flagellum
locomotion, phylum Mastigophora
Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Food vacuole
stores food. phylum Mastigophora
Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Contractile vacuole
removes excess water, releasing pressure. phylum Mastigophora
Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Pellicle
retains cell shape. Mastigophora
Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Chloroplast
stores chlorophyll. Mastigophora
Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Eyespot
detects light. Mastigophora
Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Cilia
locomotion. Ciliophora
Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Nucleus
contains DNA. Ciliophora
Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Oral Groove.
food intake and conjugation. Ciliophora
What are large deposits of diatom remains called? What are two of its uses?
Diatomaceous earth. Abrasives and filters
What is red tide?
Red tide is an algae bloom of dinoflagellates.
What substances produced by members of phylum Rhaeophyta is useful for thickening ice cream?
algin