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high rad. sens.


high rad. sens.


high rad. sens.

intestinal crypt

high rad. sens.

muscle cells

rad. resistant

nerve cells

rad. resistant


rad. resistant

Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE)

comparison of dose to test dose of 250 keV that produces the same biological response

LET Linear Energy Transfer

measure of rate at which energy is deposited as charged particles travel through matter


most commonly acted upon by ionizing radiation producing indirect effects

non threshold

assumes any radiation dose produces an effect

target theory

DNA is a critical target of exposure


separation of water into hydrogen and oxygen


occupational exposure measure

As LET increases what happens to RBE

it also increases

3 events of cell radiation

slows mitosis, interphase death, and cell death

radiosensitivity depends on what?

what cell cycle+= mitosis

when can chromosome damage be analyzed

During metaphase

radiation interaction happen likeliness

Chance and probability = random

RBE factors

radiation type, cell tissue type, physiologic condition, biologic result examined, and dose rate

Radiation of macromolecules effects

main chain scission, cross linking, and point lesion

cell survival curve

identifies doses that result in inability to reproduce

Linear dose response

observed response is directly proportional to dose

threshold dose response curve

indicates a radiation level below which no effect is observed

non threshold dose response curve

indicates any rad. dose produces an effect

Diagnostic Radiology dose response curve type

linear, non threshold

Leukemia, breast ca. and other genetic damage DRC?

linear,non threshold

Law of B & T states

stem cells more radiosens.

unit of dose equivalent occupational exposure


free radicals cause

direct effects

indirect ionization causes

direct effect

amount of energy absorbed in matter


measure of ionization in air by x or gamma rays


SI unit for roentgen


SI unit for rad


SI unit for rem



skin reddening

3 incidents that triggered radiobiology

atomic bomb 1945, x-rays 1895, radium in 1896


capable of giving off rays or particles from it's nucleus


genetic mutation by radiation

reproductive failure

cell cannot divide after irradiation

Protoplasms contain

organic and inorganic compounds

protoplasm is how much water

85 %

Diploid 2n


cell divides twice and chromosomes duplicate once



catabolism + anabolism





cell organelles location

in cytoplasm

germ cells contain (haploid)

1/2 or 23 single chromosomes

female somatic cells

44 autosomes and two x

male somatic cells

44 autosomes and one x and one y

Linear quadratic dose response curves are


underestimates the low dose effect of rad.

linear quadratic dose response curves

Used for effects of low doses of low LET

linear quadratic dose response curve

Radiation guidlines are est.using what curve

linear nonthreshold

high dose effects observed in radiotherapy curve

signoid dose response curve

effect is not directly proportional to the dose curve

sigmoid dose response curve

Target theory

this concept is that there is a sensitive key molecule in the cell (namely DNA), and for the cell to die DNA must be inactivated

Point mutation

rate at which a desired effect is produced

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