38 terms

ORGO EVOLUTION EXAM 2 CH8 PRACTICE

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Terms in this set (...)

Allele
Different forms of a gene
Allopolyploid
A fertile individual that has more than two chromosome sets as a result of two different species interbreeding and combining their chromosomes.
Autopolyploid
an individual that has more than two chromosome sets that are all derived from a single species
Back mutation
when a mutated gene reverses to its original base composition
Codon
A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
Control regions
Untranscribed regions of the genome to which products of other genes bind, and which enhance (enhancers) or repress (repressors) transcription of specific genes.
Crossing over
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
Dominance and recessiveness
when two unlike unit factors responsible for a single character are present in a single individual, one unit factor is dominant to the other, which is said to be recessive
ploidie
multiple copies of a chromosome
Exons and introns
exons code for amino acids, introns noncoding segments that need to be removed by spliceosomes.
silent mutation
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.
Mutations (silent, synonymous, nonsynonymous, etc point, frameshift, chromosomal, etc.)
Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides. The source of all genetic diversity.
Gene family
two or more different genes within a single species that are homologous to each other because they were derived from the same ancestral gene
synonymous mutation
A base pair substitution that does not change the amino acid that a codon normally produces
non synonymous mutation
A point mutation (nucleotide substitution) that causes an amino acid replacement.
point mutation
gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed
frameshift mutation
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
chromosomal mutation
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Haplotype
a group of genes within an organism that was inherited together from a single parent
Aneuploid and polyploid
abnormal number of chromosomes
Genetic marker
alleles that produce detectable phenotypic differences useful in genetic analysis
Intragenic recombination
exchanges occur at points within a single gene
Karyotype
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Chromosomal mutations (inversion, etc.)
changes in the chromosomes where parts of the chromosomes are broken and lost during mitosis
Pleiotropy
A single gene having multiple effects on an individuals phenotype
Locus
Location of a gene on a chromosome
Meiosis
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Microsatellite
A short, specific and repeating sequence of nucleotides.
Tandem repeat
a region of a chromosome that contains multiple copies of a core DNA sequence that are arranged in a repeating fashion
reciprocal translocation
reciprocal exchange of segments between two nonhomologous chromosomes
nonreciprocal translocation
genetic material moves from one chromosome to another without any reciprocal exchange
Transposons
(jumping genes) short strands of DNA capable of moving from one location to another within a cell's genetic material
transition
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transversion
purine to pyrimidine
pyrimidine to purine
What are different kinds of substitution?
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Transposition
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Unequal crossing over
Misalignment of the two DNA molecules during crossing over, resulting in one DNA molecule with an insertion and the other with a deletion
Wild type
the phenotype for a character most commonly observed in natural populations