Unit 4 - Honors World History
Terms in this set (73)
"rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome from 1300-1600 CE; resulted in artistic and scientific achievements; started in Florence, Italy
a city in the Tuscany region of northern Italy that was the center of the Italian Renaissance (1300-1600)
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
Leonardo da Vinci
A well known Italian Renaissance artist, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, and scientist. Known for the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescoes, his most famous being The School of Athens.
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
15th century invention which revolutionized the ability to print information which in turn affected the speed of the spread of information itself.
the language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region.
Martin Luther's ideas that he posted on the church door at Wittenburg which questioned the Roman Catholic Church. This act began the Reformation and led to Martin Luther's excommunication from the Catholic Church
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
a member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation
A group that has broken away from an established denomination.
1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life; who will and will not achieve salvation is determined at birth
King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
relating to the Church of England
(1533-1603) Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. She was an absolute monarch and is considered to be one of the most successful rulers of all time; daughter of Henry VIII and a Protestant
Council of Trent
A meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers. They wanted to discuss and develop a plan to address criticism of the Protestant Reformation and regain converts to Catholicism.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
An instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets
Chinese invention that aided navigation by showing which direction was north
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
God, Glory, Gold
primary European motives of age of exploration and conquest in the Western hemisphere
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to the "Indies" - Southeast Asia to access the spice trade
Vasco de Gama
A Portuguese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean to access the spice trade and bypass Muslim and Italian trading middlemen
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.
English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779).
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800's Africa sent enslaved Africans to America, America sent raw materials to Europe (sugar, cotton, tobacco, precious metals), and Europe sent guns and rum to Africa in exchange for enslaved Africans
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies; incredibly inhumane and brutal; many enslaved Africans died on the voyage
crops, such as tobacco, sugar, and cotton, raised in large quantities in order to be sold for profit
a large farm that usually specialized in growing one kind of crop for profit
A semi-feudal government of Japan in which one of the shoguns (military lords) unified the country under his family's rule. They moved the capital to Edo, which now is called Tokyo.
A Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Succeeded Mongol Yuan (Mongol) dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere (Zheng He), but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Great Wall of China
A huge wall that is over 6000 miles, which was built to keep the Mongolians in the north out of China; most of what survives today was constructed during the Ming Dynasty
(1371-1433?) Chinese naval explorer who sailed along most of the coast of Asia, Japan, and half way down the east coast of Africa before his death participating in the tribute system, wanting acknowledgement of Chinese power and superiority
(1644-1911 CE), the last imperial dynasty of China which was overthrown by revolutionaries; was ruled by the Manchu people: began to isolate themselves from Western culture,
Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China's imperial dynasties.
Examinations that were open to most males and used to recruit officials and bureaucrats in imperial China; the exam covered Confucian classics and led to the scholar gentry, an elite class of Chinese bureaucrats
A system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
(1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
A palace built by Louis XIV outside of Paris; it was a show of his power and wealth; he kept his court there to ensure that they could not revolt against him
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought; drove European imperialism in the 1450-1750 time period
Peter the Great
Russian tsar (ruler) from 1689-1725. He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg; famous for forcing men to shave their beards and wear more Western "modern" styles; an absolute monarch
An adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western—especially European or American—countries.
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
A tax on those men in Russian who wore beards by Peter the Great as a method of Westernizing Russia. Those who had beards were required to carry a token stating that they had paid their beard tax.
Eastern Orthodox Church
Christian followers in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire); split from Roman Catholic Church and shaped life in eastern Europe and western Asia; spread to Russia via Byzantine contact with Kiev
Capital of the Ottoman Empire; named this after 1453 and the sack of Constantinople.
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean; had a mosque built to rival the achievement of the Hagia Sophia
Military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country
a title of the former monarch of Iran.
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
A market selling different kinds of goods
Akbar the Great
(1542-1605) Emperor of the Mughal Empire in India. He is considered to be their greatest ruler. He is responsible for the expansion of his empire, the stability his administration gave to it, and the increasing of trade and cultural diffusion due to his religious tolerance.
in the Middle Ages, the earth-centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun; proved by Galileo and his telescope
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
an instrument that collects electromagnetic radiation from the sky and concentrates it for better observation
17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle "I think, therefore I am"; believed mind and matter were completely separate; known as father of modern rationalism
(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method.
Writers during the Enlightenment and who popularized the new ideas of the time.
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
The theory developed in early modern England and spread elsewhere that royal power should be subject to legal and legislative checks.
seperation of powers
dividing the powers of government among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches
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