Social Psychology Test- Hyland
Terms in this set (101)
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
peripheral route persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
central route persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
a set of expectations (norms) about social position, defining how those in the position are ought to behave
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent
the enduring behaviors, idea, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people transmitted from one tradition to the next
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normal social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
the loss of self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision - making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
"Us"—people with whom we share a common identity.
"them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
the tendency to favor our own group
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
/ cross-race effect/ own-race bias
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
the act of revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
an expectation that people will help those needing their help
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction - a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
T/F: Social psychology is counter intuitive
Social behavior arises from _____________ _______________
Social thinking is ________________
T/F: we are born pre-wired for social thinking
True- needed for survival
What are the 3 components to social thinking?
1. Cognitive (belief/attitude)
2. Emotional (feelings)
3. Behavioral (reaction/action)
Attribution theory relates to _________________ vs. __________________ ______________________
dispositional vs. situational attribution
knows someone= situational
Who studied the attribution error?
Fundamental attribution error relates to _________________ and _______________
stereotypes and prejudice
Who studied the fundamental attribution error?
David Napolitan and George Goethals
What does the fundamental attribution error influence?
Our _______________- to a person's disposition (behavior) or to the situation- have real _____________________
What does persuasion try to do?
What are the 2 forms of persuasion?
Peripheral route persuasion
Central route persuasion
What is an example of peripheral route persuasion?
When will attitude change be more permanent?
During central route persuasion
Persuaders try to ______________ our behavior by changing our ___________ or the _____________
changing, attitudes, situation
When are attitudes likely to affect behavior?
when external influences are minimal and when the attitude is stable, specific to behavior, and easily recalled
In the long-term, it is easier to change someone's _______ than their ______________
Examples of foot-in-door phenomenon
write-it down technique
If you can make someone consciously aware of their attitude, the more likely they are to behave in accordance with it
Changing our ______________ can change how we think about others and how we feel about ourselves
What does culture allow us to do?
preserve innovation and shape our lives
Who studied conformity?
Conformity (mimicry) helps us ___________
What are the 3 factors of social influence?
obedience to authority
What did Stanley Milgram's teacher-learner experiment exploit?
Milgram's experiments demonstrated that strong social influences can make people _______________________________________________ or __________________________________________________
conform to falsehoods or capitulate to cruelty
"fake it til you make it"
The power of one or two individuals to sway majorities is ____________________________
Why is subtle prejudice more harmful than blatant prejudice?
subtle prejudice affects the victims of it
___________________ influence our beliefs and behaviors
What can help reduce prejudice?
Exposure to different groups of people
Why is the just-world phenomenon so accurate?
people like being in control of their lives
How do we associate ourselves with certain groups?
through our social identities
What is critical to human evolution?
ingroups and outgroups
What does the scapegoat theory come from?
What feeds prejudice?
With the scapegoat theory, when will we create an explanation?
when one does not exist
Categorizing is a form of...
As humans, we tend to overestimate similarities between other groups of people. Give an example.
9/11=terrorist attack=terrorist=Muslim=all Muslims are terrorists
FORM OF STEREOTYPE
What are the determining factors of attraction?
proximity, attractiveness, similarity and those who like us
What are the 2 "ingredients" of emotions?
physical arousal and cognitive appraisal
What is the core of every type of loving relationship?
What makes up enduring companionate love?
self-disclosing intimacy and mutually supportive equity
What makes up enduring love?
equity, self-disclosure and positive love
Who studied the bystander effect?
Darley and Latane
What prompted Darley and Latante to study the bystander effect?
Kitty Genovese case
What did Darley and Latante discover through their research?
People will ONLY help if the situation enables us to first
the incident, then to
it as an emergency, and to
The bystander effect is a diffusion of _____________
When are people more likely to help?
when they're happy
The social exchange theory is an example of _____________________________
cost benefit analysis
What does reciprocity norm have to do with?
how we are socialized
The social responsibility norm is when we do things when...
we feel we have to, not when we want to
What can perceptions become?
Ways to convince people to cooperate for their mutual betterment include through agreed upon ____________, better ______________, and promoting ______________ of our responsibilities toward community, nature and whole of humanity
regulations, communication, awareness
What are the factors to help promote peace?
to achieve superordinate goals, understanding through