ENVS 1126 Exam 2- LSU

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The price of gas today is very low. Which one of the following is a potential unfavorable environmental outcome that could result from today's low gas prices.
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Terms in this set (136)
An example of consumptive use of a natural resource is ____.wild boar (pigs) hunted for personal use (eating)The maximum population of a given species that an ecosystem can support without being degraded or destroyed in the long run is calledcarrying capacityThe maximum sustainable yield for most populations must be recalculated every year becausechanging environmental conditions create variations in carrying capacityMaximum Sustainable yield is ____.the maximum amount of a resource that can be taken out while the system still maintains or replenishes.The greatest potential for sustainable growth in fisheries is in ____.aquacultureWhich one of the following best represents the productive use of a natural resource?a woman gathers mushrooms from a forest to sell in the local produce market.In general, humans can harvest renewable resources of plants and animals at sustainable levels becauseorganisms naturally produce many more offspring than are needed to maintain their populations.Increases in ocean temperatures often result in coral bleaching, in whichthe symbiotic relationship between corals and their algae is disrupted.In the state of Arizona, the use of groundwater has been aggressively managed since 1980. Before, agricultural, commercial, private demands for water growing at levels not sustainable. Before water regulation, demand for water all forms Arizona illustrated thetragedy of the commonsThe total allowable catch of a marine fish used for human food would be determined by calculating themaximum sustainable yield.With respect to ecosystems, what is the main difference between consumptive and productive use?Consumptive use refers to the use of natural systems for basic human needs, while productive use implies use for economic gainIn the hydrologic cycle, water enters the atmosphere through 1) ___ and 2) ___, and its destinations when it returns to the earth's surface are 3) ___, 4) ___, and 5) ___.1) evaporation 2) transpiration 3) reabsorption 4) percolation 5) runoffThe percentage of the world's water that is saltwater is 1)___. The percentage that is available freshwater is 2)___. The percentage that remains frozen in polar ice caps and glaciers is 3)___.1) 97.5 2) 0.77 3) 1.7Where is a majority of the Earth's freshwater stored?icecapsWhy are recharge areas important?they allow reabsorption of water into the soil which ultimately feeds groundwater.According to the hydrologic cycle, when rain falls to the Earth's surface, it has 3 main destinations. What are they?absorption by plants, percolation into groundwater, runoff into a nearby body of waterThe 3 steps of transpiration are:1) uptake of water by roots, 2) migration through stems, 3) release into atmosphereWhy don't houses in south Louisiana have basements?because the water tables are too close to the soil's surfaceWhere does acid rain come from?sulfuric acid and nitric acid released into the atmosphere are absorbed into water dropletsI have a fishing camp on the coast of Louisiana. For the past 30 years, I have drunk water from a well that was dug by my grandmother. Recently, though, the water has developed a salty taste. This is most likely due to ___.saltwater intrusion into aquifersTwo major approaches to non-fossil-fuel energy alternatives are renewable energy and _____nuclear powerThe greatest demand for electricity would occur in homes in the state of Louisianaabout noon during a hot summer WednesdayWhich of the following statements is true or accurate about the Deepwater Horizon event of 2010?much of the spill was broken down by bacteria or evaporated from the water's surfaceThe oil spill that destroyed BP's Deepwater Horizon drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 affect all of the following catastrophically, exceptagricultural production in the northern parts of the Gulf statesFossil Fuels representa large amount of paleozoic and mesozoic biomass buried anaerobically millions of years agoThe pH's of coca-cola, household ammonia, and the ocean are approximately 3,11, and 8. How do their hydrogen ion concentrations compare?ocean water has 1,000 times more H+ than ammonia, and coca-cola has 100,000 times more H+ than ocean water.Oil production is a misnomer for the process used by oil companies becausethe oil was produced hundreds of millions of years ago.The most sustainable way to drive a car would be to usean all-electric car using electricity from a windmill or solar photocells.Fossil fuels are considered non-renewable sources of energy becausetheir formation is so slowWhat is the largest use of water worldwide?irrigationIn some coastal areas experiencing rapid population growth over the past few decades, fresh water wells now yield salty water. The most likely cause of this is ___.saltwater intrusionThe process of soil and humus particles being physically picked up and carried away by wind and water is calledsoil erosionThe process by which nutrients are washed from the soil by water is called ___.leachingWhich one of the following must soils have to support plant growth?porous structureWhat is the difference between soil degradation and soil erosion?soil degradation is when soil attributes required for plant growth deteriorate, and soil erosion is when soil particles are carried away by water and windYou live in coastal Louisiana, and you love to host crawfish boils every April. Over the years, you've noticed that your property taxes have decreased because your property value has decreased. You consult your brother, he tells you this change is because of two reasons. One: your backyard has gotten smaller and smaller as your soil has fallen into the Gulf of Mexico. Two: your front yard no longer grows azaleas or another other plants because you have been dumping the salt water you use to clean your crawfish into your flower beds. Your decreased property value is because of a)___ and b)___a) soil erosion b) soil degradationRadon is an odorless radioactive gas that you cannot taste or see. Exposure to this naturally occurring gas can be dangerously high in any home in North America. Homes must be specially tested for exposure levels for residents to understand their risks.The most likely health problem associated with long-term exposure to this radioactive gas islung cancerYou're arguing with your sister about a plot of land willed to you by your great-great-grandparents. Land taken over by tall weeds. Sister wants to dig up all weeds make plot less unsightly, leave only soil behind, you think plot should be left alone. Who's rightyou because keeping roots in the ground will prevent soil erosion, even if the roots belong to unsightly weeds.Nuclear bombs rely upona domino effect that causes nuclear fission of uranium-235 in less than a second.Today, we are able to use nuclear fusion topower a hydrogen bomb.The classification of soil particles that is smallest in size is ___.clayNIMBY isa publicly perceived risk of siting a toxic or nuclear waste disposal facility near their homes.Which does not cause soil degradation?low salt contentWhat event occurred in 1986 that caused a public shift in interest in nuclear energy?the Chernobyl nuclear accidentThe U.S. drought in the 1930's that caused major ecological damages in the midwest and was worsened by soil erosion and the lack of crop rotation wasthe dust bowlWhich one of the following is the best way to describe the relationship between deforestation and soil erosionincreased deforestation --> decreased trees --> decreased roots --> decreased soil stability --> soil erosionIn the Gallegos paper, why was predation of seeds higher in open areas than in enclosure areas, regardless of the presence or absence of arils on the seeds?predators such as rodents can access and eat the seeds in open areas more easily than they can access seeds in enclosures.All of these are examples of primary seed dispersers, except _______antsWhat is the difference between primary and secondary seed dispersal?primary dispersal is removal of fruit from a tree and deposition of seeds to a particular area, and secondary seed dispersal is removal of seeds after they have been discarded by their primary disperserThe fleshy fruit that surrounds the ant-dispersed seeds in Gallegos paper is called ___.arilWhich statement is not part of the findings in the Gallegos' paper on promoting forest regeneration after deforestation?secondary seed dispersion by ants substantially decreased natural regeneration in deforested areasThe dangers of widespread DDT use are largely due to two main characteristics of DDTbiomagnification and persistence__ was the introduction and development of more efficient ways to feed a large population. Characterized by use of fertilizers, pesticides, fossil fuel-burning machineryAgricultural RevolutionMany people in the developing world who depend on rice in their diet suffer from diseases related to deficiencies of___Vitamin A and ironAlthough they have tremendous advantages, wind turbinesCause thousands of bird deaths each year.What is a major food at least half of the world eats?riceYou are tired of watching your crops die in the field from several pest species. You decide that next year you are going to use every type of ecological pest control you can find to address problem. Order pheromones interfere with reproduction of pests, sterile male flies reproduce pest flies, wasps lay eggs larvae of pests. Which control not using?cultural controlMost of the wheat, rice, and corn raised in the world has resulted from genetic engineering of one sort or another, either by crossing certain varieties or deliberately transferring genes using transgenic techniques. Helping to feed world, an example ofgenetic controlBecause of biomagnification, the most toxic organisms in any ecosystem will be thesecondary consumersIn any food web, biomagnification will result in the highest concentrations of toxins in thehighest trophic levelPhotovoltaic cells are commonly used to powercalculatorsGolden rice (GR2) is a genetically modified rice that produces:beta carotene and ironGenetic engineering:produces GMO'sWhich of the following would inhibit the production of biogas in a fermentation chamber commonly used by small farmers?leave the lid off of the top of the fermentation chamberFarmers in the Midwestern United States routinely rotate between soybean and corn crops. Sometimes it is said that they do this because the soybeans introduce nitrogen into the soil. Although true, farmers also rotate their corn and soybean crops as form of.cultural control.Which one of the following is NOT an environmental benefit of a bioengineered crop?reduced allergiesCompared to solar generated electricity, hydroelectric systemsare advantageous because they run as well at night as during the day.A woman has a large garden and decides this year she will not let the pests get beyond control. At the earliest sign of insect pests, she applies an organic insecticide and continues to apply it every month throughout the growing season. next year decides not to use any insecticides, thinking must have eliminated the pests with prior year's treatments. Unfortunately, pests reappear greater than ever before, crops are destroyed. Investigating phenomenon, she learns she just experienced a phenomenon known asresurgenceDeciding to use a natural enemies approach to control the mites that infect her crops, a farmer purchases 10,000 ladybugs in the spring and spreads them over her 100 acre fields. This represents the use of naturalpredatorsA sick tomato plant is devastated by tomato wilt, a type of fungus that infects the soil with spores and returns every year to attack more tomato plants. One effective way to combat this fungus using ecological/cultural pest control is toplant something other than tomatoes in this part of the garden next year.Which is not a consequence of producing genetically engineered crops?Increased pesticide useA man discovers that he has a fungus attacking the roots of flowers in his garden. If he uses a broad-spectrum fungicide to kill the pests, he may riskkilling beneficial decomposer fungi and mycorrhizaeUsing a broad spectrum chemical pesticide would be counterproductive if you were relying onNatural enemies controlBiotechnology may be able to promote sustainability byReducing the use of pesticidesMaintaining sustainable human exploitation of ecosystem capital will be increasingly difficult because ofGrowing pressure from human population on EarthThe cassava is an important food crop for people living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the 1970s, mealybug infestations destroyed harvests and people starved. A researcher who studied the mealybug in its native environment discovered a parasitoid wasp that was a natural predator. This approach represented a form ofNatural enemies controlTransgenic plants are generally different from traditional hybrid plants produced hundreds of years ago, because transgenic plants maycontain genes from animals or bacteriaOverpopulated countries should switch to vegetarianism because there is a 10% increase in available energy at each rise in the ___ of the biomass pyramid.trophic levelWhen college students first learn about the invasion of zebra mussels into the Great Lakes about 25 years ago, they frequently ask what controls zebra mussel populations in their native regions. If introducing natural zebra mussel predators into the Great Lakes would not cause new problems, this approach might work as an example ofNatural enemies control___ is the process of taking a gene from one organism and placing it into another organism that did not originally contain gene. Used to generate GMO's, pharma-crops.Genetic EngineeringIn a food chain, biomagnification is the result ofBioaccumulation up the trophic levelsIn a food chain consisting of toxic soil, toxic grasses, rabbits that eat the toxic grass, and hawks that eat the rabbits, the highest concentrations of toxins would occur in thetissues of the hawks.Widely applying pesticides may lead to resurgence and secondary-pest outbreaks becauseThe insecticide also killed the natural competitors and predators of the pestsFarmers who regularly experience pests that cause catastrophic damage once infestation occurs, may benefit from insurance spraying, in whichthe crops are sprayed with a pesticide before there is evidence of crop damage.Which of the following is not environmental concern of using genetic engineering crops?Less land is used into the production of food (benefit!)What is the difference between ascorbic acid and abscisic acid?ascorbic acid is vitamin C and an antioxidant; abscisic acid is a hormone that causes stomata closure.Premature aging of the skin and cataracts are on the increase due to increasedexposure to ultraviolet light.Crop damage from ozone formation is most likely to occurdownwind of a large urban center in the summer.Wilkinson's paper describes how ozone pollution is reducing food supply. This is not one of the explanations discussed in the paper:effects in the metabolism of nitrogen fixing bacteria, reducing plant growthThe effects of ozone known to occur to relatively unstressed plants, as described in Wilkinson's paper, do not include:avoidance of natural pollinators like beesWhat is the difference between an antioxidant and a ROS scavenger?An antioxidant prevents oxidation of a molecule, and an ROS scavenger neutralizes the ROS's in a system.Captain Charles Moore, in TED talk about plastic pollution in seas, does not mention thisthere are high hopes in cleaning the oceans and making them plastic freeWhich one of the following is most likely to contribute to ''drunk'' and confused bees, according to Marla Spivak?low concentrations of pesticidesJessica Green told us about how to make buildings more bacteria-friendly because there are situations in which bacteria could be desirable to building dwellers. Which answer sets is NOT an example of 1) an advantage 2) a disadvantage of this approach?1) the bacteria could strengthen the office dwellers' immune systems by exposing them to novel types of bacteria, 2) The offices could become contaminated with bacteria, including desks, chairs, mouse pads, etc.Dr. Marla Spivak, in her TED talk, mentions bees are disappearing due to multiple, interacting causes. This is not one of themNatural competitorsDianna Cohen told us about the large gyres (or patches) of plastic in our oceans. She suggested that we add a 4th R to the Reduce, Recycle, Reuse mantra. What was it?RefuseWhy did the two young female students, Miranda Wang and Jenny Yao, grow bacteria on phthalates as the sole carbon source?To select for bacteria that could break down the phthalatesIn her TED talk about plastic pollution, artist Dianna Cohen talks about adding an ''R'' to the ''reduce, reuse, recycle'' principle. This extra ''R'' stands forRefuse single use and disposable plasticIn their TED talk, young scientists Miranda Wang and Jenny Yao talked about plastic degrading bacteria; however, they never mentioned this:Plastics take a couple of years to biodegradeThe top 3 sources of energy in the U.S. are:petroleum, natural gas, coalCurrent levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide arenearly 400 ppm, higher than they have been in 800,000 years.When an automobile heats up in bright sunlight with windows rolled up, the glass in the car functions most likecarbon dioxide in the atmosphereHundreds of millions of years ago, in the formation of fossil fuels , large amounts oforganic detritus were trapped undergroundFossil fuels are considered non-renewable sources of energy because ___.they form so slowly, over millions of yearsWhich one of the following global climate changes is most associated with increased hurricane activity?Warmer oceansIf the Earth had no atmosphere,the biogeochemical cycles on Earth would be much different.Why are they called fossil fuels?They come from decomposition of organic material 100-500 million years agoIncreasing levels of greenhouse gases have caused aRise in ocean temperatures and a decrease in ocean pHMost of the weather of the world is based upon changes in the moisture, pressure, and/or temperature of theTroposphereWhich one of the following sources of energy is most sustainable?Hydroelectric damsWhich one of the following best illustrates a type of adaptation to global climate change?building taller levees to hold back storm surges along ocean coastlinesWhile enjoying a spring day off, a storm is expected. As the storm arrives and the rain begins to fall, you notice the temperatures drop dramatically. Experienced arrival of aCold frontEvery day, tremendous amounts of sun's energy strikes Earth. Why doesn't it overheat?The energy is ultimately radiated back to space.What is the intended goal of fracking?Natural gasHurricanes and tornadoes are events taking place in theTroposphereIn a Hadley Cell,Warm air rises and cool air fallsWhich of the following represents an alarming positive feedback loop of global warming?Increasing temperatures raise humidity, which further increases temperatures.The jet streams in the United States generally flow from west to east because ofRotation of the earthBurning fossil fuels, cutting down large forests, and not replanting areas with trees willIncrease atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.Most of the air pollution that we experience is located in theTroposphereStruggling with various pests attacking the garden every year, a neighbor suggests that next year they might plant a row of marigold flowers completely around the outside edge of the garden. Sure enough, the next year they did this and had fewer pests and better crops. This Farmer planting flowers around is garden, what kind of control is this?Cultural controlIf you take a hot air balloon up into the stratosphere you notice the temperature does what?Decrease then riseYou take a plane from Atlanta to Seattle and notice that it takes more time to fly TO Seattle than back. Why is that?Jet streamWhy is eating fish and chicken as opposed to beef better, environmentally speaking?Because fish and chicken use less grain than beef per poundWhich gas contributes most to global climate change because of its enormous presence in our air?Carbon dioxideIn Japan today, the greatest risk associated with the use of nuclear power isAn earthquake and/or tsunami