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SHE Quiz 1
Terms in this set (38)
a reproductive cell (egg or sperm)
the cell formed by the union of male and female germ cells (sperm and egg, respectively)
an early stage of embryonic development (roughly 16-64 cells) at which the embryo is a solid spherical mass of cells, resulting from the early cleavage divisions of the zygote; so called because of its resemblance to a "little mulberry"
The name of an embryo at an early stage of embryonic development at which the embryo (roughly 100-200 cells) is a hollow sphere made up of an outer layer of cells (the trophectoderm), a fluid-filled cavity (the blastocoel), and a cluster of cells on the interior (the inner cell mass). Embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the it.
Unspecialized cells that divide to make two cells, One cell can undergo indefinite self-renewal and the other can undergo "differentiation" to become cells with specialized functions in specific tissues.
pluripotent stem cell
A stem cell that can give rise to nearly all tissue types that are associated with different organs. They are embryonic stem cells from the inner cell mass cells of the blastocyst.
adult (tissue-specific) stem cell:
A cell found in a tissue that can renew itself but can only yield specialized cell types from the tissue from which it originated. For example, a skin stem cell can not give rise to brain tissue.
induced pluripotent stem cells (IPS)
Pluripotent stem cells derived from adult tissues by pushing them back in their development ("reprogramming") to acquire properties of human embryonic stem cells.
adult (somatic) stem cell:
An undifferentiated cell found in a differentiated (specialized), mature tissue (ie. our own organs) that can renew itself and differentiate to give rise to all the specialized cell types of the tissue in which it is present.
The name of an embryo at an early stage of embryonic development at which the embryo (roughly 30-200 cells) and 4 to 7 days of age. It is made up of a hollow sphere consisting of an outer layer of cells (the trophectoderm), a fluid-filled cavity (the blastocoel), and a cluster of cells on the interior (the inner cell mass) from which embryonic stem cells are derived.
Cells maintained for prolonged periods of time in artificial conditions in the laboratory (in vitro) that are derived from living tissues.
Growth of cells in vitro in an artificial medium for experimental research.
An embryo arising from the somatic cell nuclear transfer process (cloning) as contrasted with an embryo arising from the union of an egg and sperm. The embryo will be genetically identical to the DNA of the adult, donor cell from which it was derived.
The process through which an unspecialized cell acquires the features of a specialized cell.
In humans, the developing organism from the time of fertilization until the end of the eighth week of gestation, when it becomes known as a fetus.
embryonic stem cells (ESCs)
Primitive (undifferentiated) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of the embryo, that have the potential to become a wide variety of specialized cell types. These cells are grown as a "cell lines" in the laboratory.
An egg cell from which the nucleus has been surgically removed.
The asexual reproduction of a new human organism that is, at all stages of development, genetically virtually identical to a currently existing, or previously existing, human being.
The attachment of the blastocyst to the lining of the uterus, and its subsequent embedding there.
induced pluripotent stem cells
Adult cells reprogrammed back to a primitive, embryonic stem cell-like state by being forced to express factors important for developing into embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This "reboots" the adult cells "hard dive" and pushes them back to an embryonic state.
From the Latin for, "in glass"; meaning in a laboratory dish or test tube, an artificial environment
in vitro fertilization
A technique that unites the egg and sperm in a laboratory, instead of inside the female body.
In the living subject, a natural environment.
A cell that can produce two or more different types of mature, adult stem cells are this, but they can only produce cells of that tissue type (example, stem cells from skin can only form new skin).
give rise to ANY cell types found in the body
A treatment in which stem cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cell populations or tissues.
Any cell of an organism other than the gametes (ie. reproductive cells).
cells that are capable both of perpetuating themselves (self-renewal) and of undergoing maturation into one or more specialized types of cells (differentiation).
stem cell line
Stem cells which have been cultured under in vitro conditions that allow their grown and self-renewal without differentiation for months to years.
Not having changed to become a specialized cell.
multipotent stem cell
give rise to a SMALL NUMBER of cell types found in a mature tissue that can only yield specialized cell types (dental stem cell)
human pluripotent stem cells are:
PLURIPOTENT- Can develop (differentiate) into ALL cell types and specialized tissues in the body
EXPANDABLE - Ability to be grown for a long time in laboratory culture without losing "self-renewal" capacity
SELF RENEWING - can produce cells that become all cell types AND a cell that remains PLURIPOTENT
what enable the specific attachment of the egg and the sperm cells?
thick membrane around egg; made up of glycoproteins (the structures in microvilli that sperm attach to)
the structures in the Zona Pellucida that fuse to the tip of the sperm
penetration of Zona Pellucida
Tip of sperm breaks down membrane on the egg cell
formation and cell divisions (cleavage) of the zygote
what occurs after fertilization?
Blastocyst-development of hollow center filled with fluid and cells in the inner cell mass
what occurs 4 days after fertilization?
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