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Terms in this set (220)
Where are ground ladders carried?
all pumpers and aerial ladder apperatus as well as other types of vehicles.
depending on what, ground ladders require from one to six FF's to carry and raise into position?
what are ground ladders primarily used for?
access upper stories and roofs of buildings.
what is the difference between ladders manufactured for private industry or gen. use and Fire service ladders?
fire service ladders are capable of supporting heavier loads.
Their use under adverse conditions requires that fire service ground ladders provide a greater margin of ________ than expected from other ladders.
Design, construction, and testing specs. for fire service ground ladders are contained in what NFPA?
1931- Standard for Manufacturer's design for Fire Department Ground Ladders.
NFPA 1931 requires that folding ladders be designed to support a max. of how many pounds?
NFPA 1931 requires that single, roof, combination, and extension ladders must support a max. of how many pounds?
Requirements for use, care, maintenance, and service testing are contained in what NFPA?
1932- Standard on Use, Maintenance, and Service Testing of In-Service Fire Department Ground Ladders.
Main structural member of a ladder supporting the rungs or rung blocks.
Lowest and widest section of an extension ladder; while the ladder is being raised or lowered, this section always maintains contact with the ground or other supporting surface
bed section (also called the base section or main section)
Bottom end of the ladder; the end that is placed on the ground or other supporting surface when the ladder is positioned.
Butt (also called heel or base)
metal plates, spikes, or cleats attached to the butt end of ground ladder beams to prevent slippage.
upper section (s) of extension or some combination ladders; the section that moves
swivel plates attached to the butt of the ladder; usually have rubber or neoprene bottom surfaces.
footpads (also called shoes)
wood or metal strips, sometimes in the form of slots or channels, on an extension ladder that guide the fly section while being raised.
rope or cable used for hoisting and lowering the fly sections of an extension ladder; also called fly rope.
label affixed to the inside of each beam of each ladder section; a color change indicates that the ladder has been exposed to a sufficient degree of heat and should be tested before further use.
curved metal devices installed near the top end of roof ladders to secure the ladder to the highest point on a peaked roof of a building.
devices attached to the inside of the beams on fly sections used to hold the fly section in place after it has been extended.
pawls (also called dogs or ladder locks)
strips of metal attached to ladders at chafing points, such as the tip, or at areas where it comes in contact with the apparatus mounting brackets.
small, grooved wheel through which the halyard is drawn on an extension ladder
the two lengthwise members of a trussed ladder beam that are separated by truss or separation blocks.
cross members that provide the foothold for climbing; the rungs extend from one beam to the other
wooden or metal pieces that prevent the fly section from being extended too far
metal rods located beneath rungs extending from one beam to the other of a wood ladder
extreme top of a ladder
spacers set between the rails of a trussed ladder; sometimes used to support rungs.
Fire service ground ladders are constructed of what three main materials?
metal, wood, or fiberglass
All construction material of fire service ground ladders must meet the design and testing specs. of what NFPA?
The weight of any ladder will vary depending on what two things?
construction material and the length
These ladders are the most common type of ladder currently in the fire service use.
metal ladders constructed of heat-treated aluminum
what kind of heat can cause a metal ladder to warp and fail?
metal ladders advantages:
-least expensive construction material
-easy to repair
-available in a wide range of sizes
-available in many styles and types
metal ladders disadvantages:
-conduct heat, cold, and electricity very well
-can fail suddenly when exposed to heat in excess of 200 deg. F
-accumulate ice on the rungs in cold weather creating a slipping hazard.
the oldest construction material used for fire service ground ladders.
on wood construction ladders what type of wood is used for the beams? rungs? pulley blocks, slide glides, and other misc. parts?
Metal parts are plated for protection while wood parts are coated with what?
marine grade spar varnish
advantages of wood ladders:
-less likely to conduct electricity
-do not conduct heat
-retain strength when exposed to heat
-have better resistance to flexing and bouncing when being climbed.
-are very durable
what ladder construction has the disadvantages of having the highest cost of all ladders?
what ladder construction may can be very heavy?
what ladder construction is the newest and least common material used for fire service ground ladders? they also cost less than wood ladders but more than aluminum ladders?
advantages of fiberglass ground ladders:
-will not conduct heat, cold, or electricity
-have very strong and rigid rails
disadvantages of fiberglass ground ladders:
-can suddenly crack and fail when overloaded
-can burn when exposed to flame
where should you look for a list of disadvantages and cautions for the fiberglass ladders?
manufacturer's product manual
what are all fire service ground ladders required to have? these markings and labels are applied where?
markings and warning labels
markings commonly found on fire service ladders: NFPA 1931 requires that what be marked on each beam within 12 inches of the butt plate?
designated ladder length
markings commonly found on fire service ladders: NFPA 1931 also requires a manufacturer's name plate with what two things on it?
Month and year of manufacture
markings commonly found on fire service ladders: who may require that the apparatus designation or a locally assigned inventory number be stenciled on the beam?
authority having jurisdiction (AHJ)
what may be on the tip of the ladder make it visible in smoky or dark conditions?
painted white or strip of reflective tape
The ____ of the ladder is sometimes painted black and the ________ ______ may be indicated with a stripe.
what should you not do to a wood ladder because it can conceal damage to the wood?
all ladders meeting NFPA ____ are required to have a certification label affixed to the ladder by the manufacturer indicating that the ladder meets the standard.
warning labels required on ladders include:
-electrical hazard warning
-ladder positioning label indicating climbing angle and the side of the ladder that must be away from the building.
-heat sensor labels/ required on metal and fiberglass ladders
where are heat sensor labels located?
on the inside of each beam, below the second rung from the tip of each section.
The heat sensor is preset to what? and must have what indicated on it?
what five types of ground ladders are typically used by the fire service?
what ladder is sometimes called wall ladders or straight ladders and consist of one section of non adjustable or fixed length?
what is used to define the length of single ladders?
overall length of the beams
what are single ladders often used for?
quick access to windows and roofs on one and two story buildings
what single ladder design is intended to maximize their strength while reducing weight?
single ladders vary from _ to __ feet with the more common lengths ranging from __ to __ feet
what ladders are single ladders equipped with folding hooks that provide a means of anchoring the ladder over the ridge of a pitched roof or some other roof part?
what ladder distributes the FF's weight and helps prevent slipping?
these ladders are single ladders that are often used for interior attic access. they have hinged rungs allowing them to be folded so that one beam rests against the other.
which ladder would you use for attic scuttle holes and small rooms or closets?
folding ladders are commonly found from _ to __ feet with the most common being __ feet.
NFPA requires folding ladders to have what attached to the butt to prevent slipping on the floor surfaces?
what should you always wear when closing a folding ladder?
this ladder consists of a base or bed section and one or more fly sections that travel in guides or brackets to permit length adjustment.
extension ladders consist of a _____ or ____ section and one or more ___ sections that travel in _____ or ______ to permit length adjustment/
what indicates the size of an extension ladder?
the full length to which it can be extended
what is the general range in length of an extension ladder?
12 to 39 feet
these ladders are designed so that they can be used as a self supporting step ladder (A-frame) and as a single or extension ladder.
the lengths of combination ladders range from _ to __ feet with the most common length being __ feet
what must a combination ladder be equipped with to hold the ladder in the open position?
positive locking device
NFPA 1901 sets lengths and types of ladders to be carried on pumper apparatus as follows:
-one single (roof) ladder equipped with roof hooks
-one extension ladder
-one folding ladder
NFPA _____ Standard for automotive fire apparatus sets the min. lengths and types of ladders to be carried on pumper apparatus?
NFPA 1901 does not specify the min. lengths of the ladders to be carried on pumpers but does recommend that engines carry a 35-foot extension ladder where?
in areas where no ladder trucks are in service
periodic inspections, service tests, cleaning, and maintenance are critical to ensure what of ground ladders.
what NFPA requires ground ladders to be inspected after each use and on a monthly basis?
NFPA 1932 requires ground ladders to be inspected when?
after each use and on a monthly basis
when inspecting ground ladders, some of the elements that should be checked on all types of ladders include: which labels on metal and fiberglass ladders tor a color change indicating heat exposure?
heat sensor labels
what should you do with heat sensors when their expiration date is reached?
when inspecting ground ladders, some of the elements that should be checked on all types of ladders include: on ladders with out heat sensor labels what should be checked as indicators of heat exposure?
heavy carbon (soot) deposits or blistered paint on ladder tips
when inspecting ground ladders, some of the elements that should be checked on all types of ladders include: on fiberglass ladders check for what that indicates heat exposure?
when inspecting ground ladders, some of the elements that should be checked on all types of ladders include: check rungs for what?
damage or wear
when inspecting ground ladders, some of the elements that should be checked on all types of ladders include: check bolts and rivets for what?
when inspecting ground ladders, some of the elements that should be checked on all types of ladders include: check welds for what?
cracks or apparent defects
when inspecting ground ladders, some of the elements that should be checked on all types of ladders include: check beams and rungs for what?
cracks, splintering, breaks, gouges, checks, wavy patterns, or deformation.
when inspecting ground ladders, some of the elements that should be checked on all types of ladders include: any points of contact with _________ or other ________ where vibration may cause worn areas.
what should you look for when inspecting wooden ladders or ladders with wooden components?
-areas where the finish has been chafed or scraped.
-darkening (blistering or blackening) of the varnish (indicating exposure to heat)
-dark streaks in the wood (indicating deterioration of the wood)
-marred, worn, cracked, or splintered parts
-shoes rounded or smooth
when inspecting roof ladders what should look for on the hook assemblies?
- operate with relative ease.
- no signs of rust
- not deformed
- parts attached with no sign of looseness
when inspecting extension ladders check the following: on pawl assemblies
the hook and finger should move in and out freely
when inspecting extension ladders check the following: on the haylard
if damage or wear is found the halyard should be replaced
when inspecting extension ladders check the following: on the halyard cable. this check ensures proper synch. of the upper sections during operation.
check to see that it is taut when the ladder is in the bedded position.
when inspecting extension ladders check the following: on the pulleys.
make sure they turn freely
when inspecting extension ladders check the following: on ladder guides.
check their condition and that the fly sections move freely.
which NFPA serves as the guideline for ground ladder service testing?
when should all ground ladders be service tested?
before being placed in service
annually while in service
after exposed to heat or rough treatment
when should ladders be cleaned ?
after every use
what is the most effective tools for cleaning ladders?
soft bristle brush and running water
when cleaning ladders you may use mild soap and water or environmentally safe solvents according to who?
departmental SOP's and
what is the difference between ladder maintenance and repair?
maintenance means keeping ladders in a state of usefulness or readiness.
repair means to restore or replace that which is damaged or worn out.
who can repair ladders?
trained ladder repair tech.
you practice what to prevent injury and follow your departments what?
ground ladder SOP's
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: develop and maintain adequate what?
upper body strength
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: wear a what with safety line when training on ladders?
full body harness
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: operate ladders according to dept. what?
training and procedures
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: choose the correct ladder for what?
the assigned task
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: do not raise any ladders to within __ feet of electrical wires.
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: ______ the tip and ______ the foot of the ladder when in use during training or emergency incidents.
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: grasp where on an extension ladder when extending or retracting to prevent fingers from being pinched or caught.
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: ensure that the _____ of the ______ are seated over the rungs.
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: ensure that the ladder is _______ before climbing/
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: climb _________ and _________
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: never overload the ladder. How many FF's every ten feet or per section?
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: what should you use when working from a ground ladder?
leg lock or ladder belt
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: when do you relocate a positioned ladder?
only when ordered to do so
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: what should ladders be used for?
only their intended purposes
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: when should ladders be inspected for damage and wear?
after each use
guidelines for safely carrying, raising, lowering, and working on ladders: what should you do to the foot of an unattended ladder?
secure it to a stationary object using ropes
because speed is often required, movements should be what?
smooth and controlled
because more than one FF may be needed to raise ladders safely and efficiently what is also important?
how is individual and team proficiency in handling ladders developed and maintained?
who will usually tell you which ladder to use and/or where to place the ladder?
IC or supervisor
factors to consider when deciding where to place a ladder:
-needs of the situation
-location of overhead obstructions
-structural features such as type of roof, wall height, and presence of overhangs.
-wind direction and velocity
-topography of the area
when personnel are working on a roof or upper stories, how many means of escape are required?
at least two requiring two ladders at remote locations from each othe
selecting a ladder to reach a specific point requires what?
the ability to judge distance
the base of the ladder should be placed away from the building approximately ___-______ of the vert. distance from the ground to the point of contact with the wall.
what is the optimum climbing angle?
approx. 75 deg
residential story averages about how many feet? and the distance from floor to a windowsill averages about how many feet?
commercial story averages how many feet from floor to floor? with what distance from floor to windowsill?
working location of ladder
first story roof
working location of ladder
second story window
working location of ladder
second story roof
working location of ladder
third story window or roof
guidelines for ladder length:
extend the ladder how far beyond the roof edge? for what reason?
min of three to five rungs
to provide a footing and handhold
guidelines for ladder length:
where should the tip of the ladder be placed to gain access to a narrow window or for opening the window for ventilation?
even with the top of the window
to the wind-ward (upwind) side
building walls or parpets that extend more than six feet above the roof may require the use of what?
an additional ladder to reach the roof
extension ladders the max. extend length may be as much as _ inches less than the designated length.
to prevent injury you must use what while lifting and lowering ladders?
proper lifting techniques
how should ladders be carried from the apparatus?
quickly and safely
how many FF's can remove a ladder from a pumper apparatus?
how many FF's can remove a ladder from an aerial apparatus?
to remove vertically mounted ladders, what do you do first? and after that?
unlatch securing devices
and lift the ladder off the bracket and into the correct carrying position.
to remove ladders that are stored internally in compartments, what do you do first? and then after that?
open the compartment access panel, then slide the ladder out to the proper carrying point.
what carry can be used for one FF to carry some single or roof ladders and some 24-foot extension ladders even though 2 FF's is preferred?
to preform a low-shoulder carry, rest the ladder's ________ beam on your shoulder with your arm between two ______ near the ________ of the ladder.
what of the ladder is carried forward in most cases?
why is the forward end of the ladder carried slightly lower than the back?
provides better balance and allow you to see the way ahead. if the ladder was to strike someone it would be to the body and not the head
what is the two-firefighter low-shoulder carry most commonly used for?
24, 28 and 35 foot extension ladders
what two-firefighter carry gives FF's excellent control of the ladder?
on a two-firefighter low-shoulder carry the forward FF should place the free hand where?
over the upper butt spur
this carry begins with the extension ladder on the ground, fly section up. the FF's are positioned with one at each end on one side and one FF on the other side in the middle. facing the butt while kneeling, the FF's grasp the beam and stand holding the ladder at arm's length.
three-firefighter flat arm's length carry
the three-firefighter flat-shoulder carry is typically, used on extension ladders up to __ feet.
the two-firefighter arm's length on-edge carry is best performed with _____________ ladders.
This carry is based on the fact that FF's are positioned on the bed section (widest) side of the ladder when it is in the vert. position.
two-firefighter arm's length on-edge carry
what method is used to carry the roof ladder with the hooks closed to the extension ladder?
if the roof ladder is carried butt first where should you heel it? what should you do next?
at the base of the extension ladder
set the ladder down, walk back to the tip and open the hooks
once the hooks are open on an extension ladder, raise the ladder and rest it on the extension ladder beam, climb the extension ladder, and shoulder the roof ladder where? how are the hooks?
three to four rungs from the tip
hooks turned out
when a roof ladder is carried tip first, do you set the tip on the ground before climbing the extension ladder?
when a roof ladder is carried tip first, what should you do just before you climb the extension ladder?
open the hooks outward and then return to the center point and shoulder the ladder?
what does proper placement of ground ladders help ensure?
safety and efficiency of fire-ground operations.
who frequently decide on the exact spot where the butt is to be placed?
personnel carrying the ladder
usually the FF nearest the butt makes the decision.
when there are two FF's at the butt which one is responsible for placement?
the one on the right side
when placing the butt of ground ladders FF's must always follow what?
two objectives to be met when placing ground ladders:
-positioning the ladder properly for its intended use.
-placing the butt the proper distance from the building for safe and easy climbing.
if a ladder is to be used for a FF to break a window for ventilation, place it alongside the window to which side? the tip should be where? also used when?
-even with the top of the window
-ff's need to climb in or out of narrow windows
-or direct hose streams into them
if a ladder is to be used as rescue where is the tip placed?
slightly below the sill
while using a ladder for rescue if the sill of a window projects out from the wall what can you do to the tip for additional stability?
wedge it under the sill
while using a ladder for rescue and the window opening is wide enough to permit the ladder tip to project into it and still allow room beside it to facilitate entry and rescue where should the tip be?
two to three rungs extend above the sill.
the distance of the butt from the building establishes what?
the angle formed by the ladder and the ground
what happens if the butt is to close to the building?
stability is reduced because the weight of the person climbing tends to cause the tip to pull away from the building.
what does a 75-degree angle provide?
-less stress placed on the ladder
-optimum climbing angle
-easiest climbing position: the climber can stand perpendicular to the ground, at arm's length from the rungs.
what do experienced FF's develop to judge the proper positioning for the ladder?
ability to visually judge
to be most effective, _________, ________, and ________ are necessary when raising and lowering ladders.
methods and precautions for raising single-section and extension ladders are much the same. it is not necessary to place the ladder flat on the ground prior to raising it: only what is placed on the ground?
the transition from the carrying position to the raise can and should be done in one _______ and ________ motion.
precautions to consider before you raise a ladder:
position of the extension ladder fly sect.
tying the halyard
what should you do before making the final selection on where to place a ladder or what method to use for raising it?
look up to check for overhead electrical wires or equip.
what should you do before the final raise of a ladder?
look up again
OSHA requires that all ladders must be kept a distance of at least __ feet from all energized electrical equip.
and while lowering
who specifies whether the ladder should be placed with the fly in, toward the structure, or out, away from the structure?
each ladder manufacturer
in general all modern metal and fiberglass ladders are designed to be used with the fly ___.
wooden ladders are designed with the rungs mounted in the top truss rail are intended to be used with the fly ___
what should be done once an extension ladder is resting against a structure and before it is climbed?
excess halyard should be tied to the ladder with a clove hitch and an overhand safety knot
if a ladder is raised parallel with the building what must be done to the ladder once it is in it's vert. position?
who gives commands during the operation of raising a ladder?
what are the two basic ways for two FF's to raise a ladder?
at least _ FF's should be used to raise ladders of 35 feet or longer.
what is the only diff. between two-firefighter flat raise and a three-firefighter beam raise?
the third fire-fighter is positioned along the beam
what raise is normally used when raising a ground ext. ladder with 4 FF's?
what is the diff. between three and four-firefighter flat raise?
the placement of personnel
pivot the ladder on the beam _______ to the structure.
when should you pivot a ladder?
before it is extended
because they are hard to control, shifting a ladder that is in a vert. position should be limited to what?
one FF can safely shift a single ladder that is __ feet long or less.
two methods for securing a ladder:
when ever possible a ladder should be ____ securely to a fixed object.
what can be used between the ladder and a fixed object to tie in?
rope hose tool or safety strap
how should ladder climbing be done?
smoothly and rhythmically
this smoothness is accomplished if your knee is _____ to ease the ______ on each rung.
you should ascend the ladder so that there is the least possible amount of _____ and _____.
the climb starts after what?
climbing angle has been checked and the ladder is properly secured.
where should your eyes be focused while climbing a ladder?
forward with an occasional glance at the tip
what rungs should be grasped while climbing the ladder?
coordinate hand and foot movement so that the ______ hand and _____ foot are in contact with ladder as you move the ________ hand and foot to the next rungs.
what should your arms and hands NOT do while climbing because that will bring your body too close to the ladder?
reach above your head
practice climbing slowly to develop ______ rather than speed.
______ develops with repetition after proper technique is mastered.
when climbing ladders too much speed results in what?
lack of body control
the ladder to bounce and sway
what may you be required to carry up and down a ladder during an emergency operation?
what does carrying a tool up a ladder do? where might you slide your free hand?
disrupts your natural climbing motion either from weight or only using one hand
under the beam
whenever possible what should be used to get tools and equip. to the roof?
utility rope to hoist
what can be used to safely secure the FF to a ladder while performing work?
ladder belt or leg lock
to bring victims down a ground ladder how many FF are needed?
at least four
when lowering a victim down a ground ladder where should the feet of the victim be placed?
outside the rails
what does it reduce to have an unconscious victim face the FF on the way down a ground ladder?
the chances of the victim's limbs catching between the rungs.
the unconscious victim facing the rescuer is supported at the ______ by one of the rescuer's arms and at the _____ by the other arm.
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