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Essentials of Business Communications flashcards

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1.Advancements in technology an writing skills are increasingly important why?
because more messages are being transmitted.
2.Looking and sounding professional gains you?
credibility on the job.
3.Those with four-year degrees will earn nearly ? as much as high school dropouts?
three times
4.Communication is?
the transmission of information and meaning from one individual or group to another.
5.The communication process has five steps ?
idea formation, message encoding, message transmission, message decoding, and feedback.
6.Most individuals listen at only ? percent efficiency.
25
7.Barriers to listening may be ?
physical, psychological, verbal, or nonverbal.
8.Physical barriers
impediments include hearing disabilities, poor acoustics, and noisy surroundings, ill, tired, uncomfortable, or worried
9.Psychological barriers
cultural, ethical, and personal values "tune out" the speaker
10.Language problems
Unfamiliar words, abortion or overdose has an intense emotional impact
11.Nonverbal distractions
Unusual clothing, speech mannerisms, body twitches, or a radical hairstyle
12.Nonverbal communication includes ?
all unwritten and unspoken messages, intended or not.
13.When verbal and nonverbal messages clash?
listeners tend to believe the nonverbal message.
14.The appearance of a message and of an individual can convey ?
positive or negative nonverbal messages.
15.Ethnocentrism is ?
the belief in the superiority of one's own culture and group.
16.A stereotype is ?
an oversimplified behavioral pattern applied to entire groups.
17.Developing intercultural tolerance means ?
practicing empathy, being nonjudgmental, and being patient.
18.The writing process has three parts:
prewriting, writing, and revising.
19.The first phase of the writing process involves
analyzing and anticipating the audience and then adapting to that audience.
20.Because revising is the most important part of the writing process,
it takes the most time. 50% 45 revising n 5 proofreading.
21.The primary purpose of most business messages is to
inform or to persuade; the secondary purpose is to promote goodwill.
22.Choosing an appropriate channel depends
imp. of message, feedback required, need for a perm. record, cost, needed degree of formality,confidentiality,sensitivity
23.By profiling your audience before you write ?
you can identify the appropriate tone, language, and channel for your message.
24.profiling the audience, you can decide whether the receiver will be ?
neutral, positive, or hostile toward your message.
25.empathy involves ?
shaping a message that appeals to the receiver.
26.Positive language creates?
goodwill and gives more options to receivers.
27.Good sources of primary information are
interviews, surveys, questionnaires, and focus groups.
28.Frontloading
saves the reader's time, establishes the proper frame of mind, and prevents frustration.
29.The indirect pattern works best when
the audience may be uninterested, unwilling, displeased, or even hostile.
30.Fragments are
broken-off parts of sentences and should not be punctuated as sentences.
31.When two independent clauses are run together without punctuation or a conjunction,
a run-on (fused) sentence results.
32.When two independent clauses are joined by a comma without a conjunction,
a comma splice results.
33.You can emphasize an idea mechanically by
using underlining, italics, boldface, font changes, all caps, dashes, and tabulation.
34.You can emphasize ideas stylistically by
using vivid words, labeling the main idea, and positioning the main idea strategically.
35.You can de-emphasize ideas by
using general words and placing the ideas in dependent clauses.
36.Active-voice sentences are preferred because
the subject is the doer of the action.
37.Balanced wording helps
the reader anticipate and comprehend your meaning.
38.Modifiers must be
close to the words they describe or limit.
39.The most readable paragraphs contain
a topic sentence, support sentences, and techniques to build coherence.
40.The most readable paragraphs contain ? or fewer printed lines.
eight
41.revision involves ?
improving content, sentence structure, and design; proofreading involves improving grammar, spelling, punctuation, and mechanics.
42.avoid long lead-ins that prevent the reader from
reaching the meaning of the sentence.
43.redundancies
convey a meaning more than once.
44.Train yourself not to use
trite business expressions. (as per your request)
45.Jargon,
which is terminology unique to certain professions, should be reserved for individuals who understand it.
46.slang
sounds fashionable, but it lacks precise meaning and should be avoided in business writing. (moved it down the totem pole)
47.Drop clichés
that are dull and often ambiguous.(pass with flying colors)
48.successful document design
improves readability, strengthens comprehension, and enhances your image.
49.Business documents are most readable with
left-aligned text and ragged-right margins.
50.You can improve document readability with
ample white (empty) space.
51.serifs
small features at the ends of strokes Times new roman is a typeface with serifs; arial is a typeface without serifs (sans serif ).
52.improve the "skim" value of a message by
adding high-visibility vertical lists.
53.proofreading before a document is completed is
generally a waste of time.
54.compound sentence contains
two complete related thoughts
55.Paper-based messages include
business letters and memos.
56.Electronic messages include
e-mail, instant messaging, text messaging, podcasts, blogs, and wikis.
57.Much of your success in business and in life depends on how skilled you are at
persuading people to believe, accept, and act on what you are saying
58.Appropriate for brief comments, instant messaging
is faster and more interactive than e-mail.
59.E-mail messages and memos
inform employees, request data, give responses, confi rm decisions, and provide directions.
60.Hard-copy memos are useful for
internal messages that require a permanent record or formality.
61.Avoid sending sensitive, confidential, inflammatory, or potentially embarrassing messages because
e-mail is not private.
63.Organizations may ban instant messaging because of
productivity, security, litigation, and compliance fears.
64.Traditional direct-mail marketing uses ?
snail mail
65.electronic marketing uses ?
e-mail, web documents, and fax.
66.Finding a satisfying career requires you
to learning about yourself, the job market, and the employment process
67.employment Web sites list many jobs, but finding a job electronically requires
more work than simply clicking a mouse.
68.Chronological resumes focus on
job history with the most recent positions listed first
69.Recruiters may say they prefer
one-page resumes, but many choose to interview those with longer resumes
70.Sequential interviews
allow a candidate to meet individually with two or more interviewers over the course of several hours or days.
71.Before your interview,
take time to research the target company and learn about its goals, customers, competitors, reputation, and so forth.
72..Business letters are important for messages that require
a permanent record, confi dentiality, formality, sensitivity, and a wellconsidered presentation.
73.Messages that express thanks, recognition, and sympathy should be
written promptly.
74.Reports that present data without analysis or recommendations are
primarily information in nature
75.Formal reports
discuss the results of a process of thorough investigation and analysis
76.The facts for reports are often obtained from
company records, observation, surveys, interviews, printed material, and electronic resources.
77.The planning of every report begins with a
statement of purpose explaining the goal, signifi cance, and limitations of the report.
78.Business etiquette is closely related to
everyday ethical behavior.
79.Social intelligence is the ability
to get along well with others, and to get them to cooperate with you
80.Soft skills is the most common term for
important interpersonal habits
81.Although e-mail is a relatively new communication channel, people are beginning to agree on
specific formatting and usage conventions
82.Avoid sending sensitive, confi dential, inflammatory, or potentially embarrassing messages because
e-mail is not private.
83.The principal channel for delivering messages outside an organization
is business letters.
84.The sting of bad news can be reduced by
giving reasons and communicating sensitively
85.The indirect pattern softens the impact of bad news by
giving reasons and explanations first.
86.four parts of indirect pattern
buffer, reasons, bad news, closing
87.When it comes to persuasion, the power relationships at work determine how we write- whether we choose
a direct or indirect approach
88.direct pattern is appropriate when the receiver might
overlook the bad news, when firmness is necessary, and when the bad news is not damaging
89.Openers can buffer the bad news with
compliments, appreciation, agreement, relevant facts, and understanding
90.A moderate tone in your business message is
always important
91.Techniques for cushioning bad news include
positioning it strategically, and suggesting alternatives or compromises. (Also implying the refusal)
92.After explaining the bad news sensitively, close the message with
a pleasant statement that promotes goodwill.
93.A buffer is a ? and it is like?
neutral statement on which both the reader and writer can agree, such as a compliment
94.When you must deliver bad news in person, be sure to
gather all the information, prepare, and rehearse.
95.Most organizations can sustain employee morale by communicating bad news
openly and honestly
96.Persuasion is necessary when you
anticipate resistance or when you must prepare before you can present your ideas effectively.
97.rational appeals focus on
making or saving money, increasing effi ciency, or making good use of resources.
98.Instructions or directives moving downward from superiors to subordinates usually require
little persuasion
99.The key to making a request of a superior is to know
your needs and have documentation [facts, figures, evidence].
100.The 6th possible step in the communication process is
(additional feedback to receiver)