29 terms

APES Friedland Chapter 11 - Agriculture

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Undernutrition
The condition in which not enough calories are ingested to maintain health.
Malnourished
Having a diet that lacks the correct balance of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.
Famine
The condition in which food insecurity is so extreme that large numbers of deaths occur in a given area over a relatively short period.
Anemia
A deficiency of iron.
Overnutrition
Ingestion of too many calories and a lack of balance of foods and nutrients.
Industrial agriculture
Agriculture that applies the techniques of mechanization and standardization. Also known as agribusiness.
Green Revolution
A shift in agricultural practices in the twentieth century that included new management techniques, mechanization, fertilization, irrigation, and improved crop varieties. Resulted in increased food output.
Waterlogging
A form of soil degradation that occurs when soil remains under water for prolonged periods.
Salinization
A form of soil degradation that occurs when the small amount of salts in irrigation water becomes highly concentrated on the soil surface through evaporation.
Monocropping
An agricultural method that utilizes large plantings of a single species or variety.
Pesticide
A substance, either natural or synthetic that kills or controls organisms that people consider pests.
Insecticide
A pesticide that targets species of insects and other invertebrates that consume crops.
Herbicide
A pesticide that targets plant species that compete with crops.
Broad spectrum pesticide
A pesticide that kills many different types of pest.
Selective pesticide
A pesticide that targets a narrow range of organisms.
Persistent pesticide
A pesticide that remains in the environment for a long time.
Bioaccumulation
Build up of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism. Occurs when an organism absorbs a substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost by catabolism and excretion.
Pesticide treadmill
A cycle of pesticide development, followed by pest resistance, followed by new pesticide development.
Shifting agriculture
An agricultural method in which land is cleared and used for a few years until the soil is depleted of nutrients.
Desertification
The transformation of arable, productive land to desert or unproductive land due to climate change or destructive land use.
Intercropping
An agricultural method in which two or more crop species are planted in the same field at the same time to promote a synergistic interaction.
Crop rotation
An agricultural technique in which crop species in a field are rotated from season to season.
Agroforestry
An agricultural technique in which trees and vegetables are grown next to each other in rows or other patterns.
Contour plowing
An agricultural technique in which plowing and harvesting are done parallel to the topographic contours of the land.
Integrated pest management (IPM)
An agricultural practice that uses a variety of techniques designed to minimize pesticide inputs.
Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)
An animal feeding operation (AFO)—a farm in which animals are raised in confinement—that has over 1000 "animal units" confined for over 45 days a year.
Bycatch
The unintentional catch of nontarget species while fishing.
Aquaculture
Farming aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish and seaweeds.
Urban agriculture
The practice of cultivating, processing, and distributing food in or around a village, town, or city.

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