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three-field system

a rotational system for agriculture in which one field grows grain, one grows legumes, and one lies fallow.; replaceed the two-field system in medieval Europe; population growth

Teutonic Knights

German religious order that defeated the Prussians

Black Death

kills 1/3 of Western Europeans; people become more religious;...

water wheels

mills powered by water/wind that grind grain and flour, saw logs into lumber, crush olives, tan leather, and make paper; windmills; Islamic world has already had it for a while; water power expands iron making--> armor, nails, horseshoes, & agriculture tools

Hanseatic League

an economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany (aka: an association of trading cities); traded in Baltic, including the coasts of Prussia, and the merchants ranged westward across the North Sea to London

Champagne Fairs

began as regional markets, meeting once or twice a year, where manufactued goods, livestock, and farm produce were exchanged; king of France guarenteed safe conduct to all merchants--> made it an international affair; important for currency exchange and other financial transactions


an association of craft specialists (skilled workers), such as merchants, artisans, or professors, from the same trade

gothic cathedrals

large churched originating in the twelfth-century France; built in an architechtural style featuring pointel archs, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained glass windows; "architextural wonders" first appearing in France;

new monarchies

power shifts from nobles to monarchs; greater centralization of power, more fixed "national" boundries, vassal and church taxes to pay for standing armies (king increases taxes on subjects more)

Magna Carta

King John was forced to sign it; gave nobles and the church more rights and limited the monarchs

Hundred Years War

a series of campains over control of the throne of France, involving the English and French royal families and French noble families; conflict arose out of marriage alliances; involved the crossbow, longbow, swiss pike, and firearms


military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by muslims


a period of intense artistic and intellectual activity; rebirth; begins in northern Italy; translated Greek and Latin works


degree-granting institutions of higher learning; main focus:grammar, poetry, rhetoric and THEOLOGY; 60 new universities opened


an attempt by 13th century theologians to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy and religious faith; Thomas Aquinas' Summa Theologica


reform of secondary institutions; european scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of humanities

Great Western Schism

a division in the Latin Christian Church when rival claiments to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon

printing press

increased literacy; printing in local languages

Zheng He

an imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted my the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships throughout the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa


Amerindian peoples who inhabited the Greater Antilles of the Caribbean at the time of Colombus;

Latin West exploration motivations

1.) the revival of urban life and trade 2.) a struggle with Islamic powers for dominance of the Mediterranean that mixed religious motivates with desire for trade with distant lands 3.)growing intellectual curiosity about the outside world 4.) a peculiarly European alliance between merchants and rulers

Treaty of Tordesilla

document in 1494 that split the Western Hemisphere's land in half between Spain and Portugal

Henry the Navigator

magnetic compass, astrolabe, and the caravel; funded by the crown and the Order of Christ; schools of navigation and mapping- king supports them and funds them


new ship-- triangular sails, good wood, lots of cargo space, smaller and more maneuverable, CANNON

Gold Coast

(Africa); region of the Atlantic coast of West Africa occupied by modern Ghana; named for its gold exports to Europe

Bartolomeu Dias

first person to get past the tip of Africa

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese explorer; he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial trade route

Christopher Columbus

Genoese mariner who in the service of Spain led expiditions across across the Atlantic; established contact between peoples of the Americas and the Old World; opened the way to Spanish conquest and colonization

Ferdinand Magellan

first to sail around the world; Portuguese

major differences between Portugal and Spain

Portugal: encountered experiences populations with almost as good technology, couldn't use spread of disease as weapon, had MARITIME trade empire, focused on dominating the IO trade, and trade with W. Africa
Spain: encountered naive populations with little technology, used spread of smallpox as a weapon, established land empires, focused on extracting resources from land

Spain and Portugal's Empires

Spain= territorial empire
Portugal= trading empire- conquers IOMS and wants to make their countries richer

Portuguese and the IOMS

puts taxes on the Indian Ocean; wants to make Indian Ocean their prop.; W. Africa wont let them take over; E. Africa= smart and Muslim; Portuguese laughed at by Indians b/c they've already seen China's impressive technology (________ and the _______)


Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru

Hernan Cortes

conquered the Aztecs

Montezuma II

was the last Aztec emperor; overthrown by the spanish conquistador Hernan Cortez ^^^^

Francisco Pizarro

captures the Incans through guns, germs, and steel


last ruling Inca emperor of Peru; executed by the Spanish


central administration of the Roman Catholic Church; pope is the head


people would give money,make a pilgrimage, make a donation to the church, say a particular prayer, or commit a pious act for the forgiveness of sins

Martin Luther

a catholic monk; protests indulgences; says FAITH is the key to salvation; wrote the 95 Thesis (printed by the printing press); he was excommunicated after the Edict of Worms


non-believers were punished

Protestant Reformation

religious reformation movement within the Latin Christian Church; resulted in the "protesters" forming several new Christian denominations including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England

John Calvin

believed that everyone is pre-destined; synods- leaders of the church who decided things, black clothes, no fun, more democratic

Council of Trent

a time when the catholic church tried to regroup; bishops to reside in diocese; seminary to train priests

Catholic Reformation

religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church; begun in response to the Protestant Reformation; clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training the discipline

witch hunts

caused by the stress or warring between Catholics and protestants; witches were mainly widows and single women (independent)


belief in spirits, fairies, etc.

Scientific Revolution

workings of the universe could be explained by natural causes; major Renaissance in the subjects of astronomy and chemistry


inventor of the telescope, he uses this to disprove Aristotle's theory of perfect crystalline spheres by discovering blemishes on the moon; tried by the Church for his discovery and is sentenced to house arrest for the rest of his life

Robert Boyle

father of chemistry; Royal Academy of Science- better ideas


mathematically explained planetary movements- which approves Copernicus' heliocentric theories


Polish scientist who introduced the theory of epicycles and heliocentric universe; gets rid of Ptolemy's geocentric theories, influenced by Nasir al-Din Tusi

Little Ice Age

the temperatures go down--> impacts crops--> crop production goes down


caused by iron production; coal --> pollution


from France; a wealthy urban class who buy Caribbean and Brazilian sugar and rum, Mexican chocolate, Virginia tobacco, North American furs, East Indian cotton textiles and spices, and Chinese tea; connected to trade, manufacturing, and finance, DUTCH were in main control; loans nobles $--> nobles in debt;

Dutch and the IOMS

Dutch replace Portuguese in IOMS; nobles and church aren't taxed

joint stock companies

mutually beneficial alliances between bourgeoisie and monarchs; what drives overseas trade and economics; kings tax then put it towards army;

stock exchange

a place where shares in a company/ business enterprise are bought and sold


a class of landholding families in England below the aristocracy; retired bourgeoisie who moved to the countryside and bought houses

Peace of Augsburg

edict issued by Charles V that allowed German princes to choose between Catholicism or Protestant as their main religion

Holy Roman Empire

Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes

Charles V

inherits 2 countries- Austria and the Holy Roman Empire, already rules Netherlands and brings in Catholicism

James II

Glorious Revolution; struggles between parliament and monarchy; attempted to switch England back to Catholicism; BIll or Rights, signed by William and Mary, weakens monarchy, strengthens Parliament

Louis XIV

the most well known French King, wife was Marie Antoinette, moved the royal palace to Versailles- way of keeping track of nobles, also eliminated Edict of Nantes

Thirty Years War

war between the Catholics and Protestants that also involved Prussia and 1/4 of the population dies

War of Spanish Succession

the combination of Britain's naval strength and the land armies of its Austrian and Prussian allies; was able to block French expansionist efforts and prevent the Bourbons from uniting the thrones of France and Spain

balance of power

policy of international relations by which the major European states acted together to prevent anyone from becoming too powerful

Philip II

inquisition; index of forbidden books

Henry VIII

creates own church after the Pope refused to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon and establishes Church of England, father of Elizabeth I; Act of Supremacy


from the Americas; pays for war debt, manufacturing, and grain; increased Europe's money supply which promotes commercial expansion and later industrialization; leads to globalization; the world's most biggest "mineral" at the time


the highest social class in the Americas; the Spanish nobles and elite born from pure Spanish blood

John Locke

said people should rebel if monarch abuses power

Columbian Exchange

the transfer of peoples, animals, plants, and diseases between the New World and Old World; initiated in 1493 when he sails across the Atlantic

Old World --> New World

wheat, olives, grapes, and garden vegetables; cattle , pigs, horses, sheep (____ World --> ____ World)

Africa and Asia --> New World

transfer rice, bananas, coconuts, and sugar cane (____ and _____ --> ____ World)

New World --> Old World

transfer of maize, potatoes, manioc, beans, squash, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, chilies, and chocolate; calorie increase and pop. increase (___ World --> ___ World)

Council of Indies

Royal power in place over population which supervised all gov.,ecclesiastical, and commercial activity in Spanish colonies,


Portugal's viceroyalty was problematic and took longer to establish; Spanish and Portuguese viceroys became large bureaucracies


form of forced labor and tribute (Amer-Indians)


one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America

sugar plantations

dominated Brazil; first used enslaved Amer-Indians to African slaves because they were cheaper; provided a monopoly on this cash crop

Bartolome de Las Casas

outlawed the enslavement of Amerindians--> low wage labor- just like enslavement


new syncretic religion; involves voodoo and animal sacrifice; also called the Santeria; adopts elements of Arawak, Christianity, African tradition, and Freemasonry symbols to form this practice


American born Spanish whites


someone of mixed Amerindian and European descent

House of Burgesses

representatives of towns who met alone as deliberative body; distinguished English colonies from colonies of other European powers; was the first "authoritative house" of DEMOCRACY


believed that God predestined souls to heaven/hell before birth


homogeneous and less hierarchical, poor soil, smaller numbers of forced labor and based on families, powerful lower legislative class,

Iroquois Confederacy

alliance of 5 northeastern Amerindian peoples that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives; allied first with Dutch and later with English;

New France

Allies with Huron and Algonquin

coureurs de bois

(runners of the woods); young Frenchmen who were sent to live among native peoples to master their languages and customs; French fur traders, many of mixed Amerindian heritage; lived among and often married Amerindian peoples from North America;

French and Indian War

war in which France loses Canada to England and Louisiana to Spain


main cash crop in North and South Carolina traded over to Europe especially France

southern cash crops

tobacco, indigo, and rice

New England economy

no cash crops; private corporations

French Economy

based on fur trade to get advanced guns; private companies

indentured servants

a migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years

Stono rebellion

a 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws

merchant banking

Jews; involves checking accounts, shareholding companies, money changing, loans, investments, etc.

Joan of Arc

led the French to victory in decisive battle during the Hundred Years War; inspired French soldiers and burned at the stake for her faith

Catholic Reformation

proceeding the Protestant Reformation, attempted by Catholics to get back on their feet and fix their ideals in religions; Council of Trent; Jesuit missionaries


one could buy their own freedom


one of the lower classes in the Spanish social class system, was a interbreed of African and Spanish


a way the Catholic church used to gain money through tithes and these; could avoid sin by donating to the church or doing certain prayers

Dutch West India Company

seizes land in Brazil and West African slave trading stations for sugar plantations in Brazil; expelled by the Portuguese and turn attention to plantations in the West Indies


a small number of rich men who owned land and slaves


banks; stocks, chartered trading companies are all examples of __________ where the government is in charge of the ebb and flow of the economy


government policy that protects trade and demands the accumulation of gold and silver; chartered companies, Navigation acts, Exclusif Stamp Tax


tax put on goods from other countries; done so that traders could only trade with their mother country; limits competition between goods and prices shift


new empire in NW Africa; Muslims and Christians and Jews couldn't be slaves so most slaves in the Middle East converted to Islam; supplied slaves and gold


the watcher of the slaves, keeping the slaves in line on behalf of higher power (plantocracy)


the term given to slaves who escaped from plantations and established communities in the mountains

Middle Passage

the term given to the journey from the New World to the old to transfer African slaves; abuse, disease, execution, suicide

Atlantic System

the triangular and clockwise network of trade that connects the American colonies, Spain, and England/France

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