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114 terms

Ch. 14-18 AP World Test

STUDY
PLAY
three-field system
a rotational system for agriculture in which one field grows grain, one grows legumes, and one lies fallow.; replaceed the two-field system in medieval Europe; population growth
Teutonic Knights
German religious order that defeated the Prussians
Black Death
kills 1/3 of Western Europeans; people become more religious;...
water wheels
mills powered by water/wind that grind grain and flour, saw logs into lumber, crush olives, tan leather, and make paper; windmills; Islamic world has already had it for a while; water power expands iron making--> armor, nails, horseshoes, & agriculture tools
Hanseatic League
an economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany (aka: an association of trading cities); traded in Baltic, including the coasts of Prussia, and the merchants ranged westward across the North Sea to London
Champagne Fairs
began as regional markets, meeting once or twice a year, where manufactued goods, livestock, and farm produce were exchanged; king of France guarenteed safe conduct to all merchants--> made it an international affair; important for currency exchange and other financial transactions
guild
an association of craft specialists (skilled workers), such as merchants, artisans, or professors, from the same trade
gothic cathedrals
large churched originating in the twelfth-century France; built in an architechtural style featuring pointel archs, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained glass windows; "architextural wonders" first appearing in France;
new monarchies
power shifts from nobles to monarchs; greater centralization of power, more fixed "national" boundries, vassal and church taxes to pay for standing armies (king increases taxes on subjects more)
Magna Carta
King John was forced to sign it; gave nobles and the church more rights and limited the monarchs
Hundred Years War
a series of campains over control of the throne of France, involving the English and French royal families and French noble families; conflict arose out of marriage alliances; involved the crossbow, longbow, swiss pike, and firearms
reconquest
military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by muslims
reniassance
a period of intense artistic and intellectual activity; rebirth; begins in northern Italy; translated Greek and Latin works
universities
degree-granting institutions of higher learning; main focus:grammar, poetry, rhetoric and THEOLOGY; 60 new universities opened
scholasticism
an attempt by 13th century theologians to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy and religious faith; Thomas Aquinas' Summa Theologica
humanism
reform of secondary institutions; european scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of humanities
Great Western Schism
a division in the Latin Christian Church when rival claiments to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon
printing press
increased literacy; printing in local languages
Zheng He
an imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted my the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships throughout the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa
Arawak
Amerindian peoples who inhabited the Greater Antilles of the Caribbean at the time of Colombus;
Latin West exploration motivations
1.) the revival of urban life and trade 2.) a struggle with Islamic powers for dominance of the Mediterranean that mixed religious motivates with desire for trade with distant lands 3.)growing intellectual curiosity about the outside world 4.) a peculiarly European alliance between merchants and rulers
Treaty of Tordesilla
document in 1494 that split the Western Hemisphere's land in half between Spain and Portugal
Henry the Navigator
magnetic compass, astrolabe, and the caravel; funded by the crown and the Order of Christ; schools of navigation and mapping- king supports them and funds them
caravel
new ship-- triangular sails, good wood, lots of cargo space, smaller and more maneuverable, CANNON
Gold Coast
(Africa); region of the Atlantic coast of West Africa occupied by modern Ghana; named for its gold exports to Europe
Bartolomeu Dias
first person to get past the tip of Africa
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer; he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial trade route
Christopher Columbus
Genoese mariner who in the service of Spain led expiditions across across the Atlantic; established contact between peoples of the Americas and the Old World; opened the way to Spanish conquest and colonization
Ferdinand Magellan
first to sail around the world; Portuguese
major differences between Portugal and Spain
Portugal: encountered experiences populations with almost as good technology, couldn't use spread of disease as weapon, had MARITIME trade empire, focused on dominating the IO trade, and trade with W. Africa
Spain: encountered naive populations with little technology, used spread of smallpox as a weapon, established land empires, focused on extracting resources from land
Spain and Portugal's Empires
Spain= territorial empire
Portugal= trading empire- conquers IOMS and wants to make their countries richer
Portuguese and the IOMS
puts taxes on the Indian Ocean; wants to make Indian Ocean their prop.; W. Africa wont let them take over; E. Africa= smart and Muslim; Portuguese laughed at by Indians b/c they've already seen China's impressive technology (________ and the _______)
conquistadors
Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru
Hernan Cortes
conquered the Aztecs
Montezuma II
was the last Aztec emperor; overthrown by the spanish conquistador Hernan Cortez ^^^^
Francisco Pizarro
captures the Incans through guns, germs, and steel
Atahualpa
last ruling Inca emperor of Peru; executed by the Spanish
papacy
central administration of the Roman Catholic Church; pope is the head
indulgences
people would give money,make a pilgrimage, make a donation to the church, say a particular prayer, or commit a pious act for the forgiveness of sins
Martin Luther
a catholic monk; protests indulgences; says FAITH is the key to salvation; wrote the 95 Thesis (printed by the printing press); he was excommunicated after the Edict of Worms
inquisition
non-believers were punished
Protestant Reformation
religious reformation movement within the Latin Christian Church; resulted in the "protesters" forming several new Christian denominations including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England
John Calvin
believed that everyone is pre-destined; synods- leaders of the church who decided things, black clothes, no fun, more democratic
Council of Trent
a time when the catholic church tried to regroup; bishops to reside in diocese; seminary to train priests
Catholic Reformation
religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church; begun in response to the Protestant Reformation; clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training the discipline
witch hunts
caused by the stress or warring between Catholics and protestants; witches were mainly widows and single women (independent)
folklore
belief in spirits, fairies, etc.
Scientific Revolution
workings of the universe could be explained by natural causes; major Renaissance in the subjects of astronomy and chemistry
Galileo
inventor of the telescope, he uses this to disprove Aristotle's theory of perfect crystalline spheres by discovering blemishes on the moon; tried by the Church for his discovery and is sentenced to house arrest for the rest of his life
Robert Boyle
father of chemistry; Royal Academy of Science- better ideas
Kepler
mathematically explained planetary movements- which approves Copernicus' heliocentric theories
Copernicus
Polish scientist who introduced the theory of epicycles and heliocentric universe; gets rid of Ptolemy's geocentric theories, influenced by Nasir al-Din Tusi
Little Ice Age
the temperatures go down--> impacts crops--> crop production goes down
deforestation
caused by iron production; coal --> pollution
bourgeoisie
from France; a wealthy urban class who buy Caribbean and Brazilian sugar and rum, Mexican chocolate, Virginia tobacco, North American furs, East Indian cotton textiles and spices, and Chinese tea; connected to trade, manufacturing, and finance, DUTCH were in main control; loans nobles $--> nobles in debt;
Dutch and the IOMS
Dutch replace Portuguese in IOMS; nobles and church aren't taxed
joint stock companies
mutually beneficial alliances between bourgeoisie and monarchs; what drives overseas trade and economics; kings tax then put it towards army;
stock exchange
a place where shares in a company/ business enterprise are bought and sold
gentry
a class of landholding families in England below the aristocracy; retired bourgeoisie who moved to the countryside and bought houses
Peace of Augsburg
edict issued by Charles V that allowed German princes to choose between Catholicism or Protestant as their main religion
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes
Charles V
inherits 2 countries- Austria and the Holy Roman Empire, already rules Netherlands and brings in Catholicism
James II
Glorious Revolution; struggles between parliament and monarchy; attempted to switch England back to Catholicism; BIll or Rights, signed by William and Mary, weakens monarchy, strengthens Parliament
Louis XIV
the most well known French King, wife was Marie Antoinette, moved the royal palace to Versailles- way of keeping track of nobles, also eliminated Edict of Nantes
Thirty Years War
war between the Catholics and Protestants that also involved Prussia and 1/4 of the population dies
War of Spanish Succession
the combination of Britain's naval strength and the land armies of its Austrian and Prussian allies; was able to block French expansionist efforts and prevent the Bourbons from uniting the thrones of France and Spain
balance of power
policy of international relations by which the major European states acted together to prevent anyone from becoming too powerful
Philip II
inquisition; index of forbidden books
Henry VIII
creates own church after the Pope refused to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon and establishes Church of England, father of Elizabeth I; Act of Supremacy
silver
from the Americas; pays for war debt, manufacturing, and grain; increased Europe's money supply which promotes commercial expansion and later industrialization; leads to globalization; the world's most biggest "mineral" at the time
Peninsulares
the highest social class in the Americas; the Spanish nobles and elite born from pure Spanish blood
John Locke
said people should rebel if monarch abuses power
Columbian Exchange
the transfer of peoples, animals, plants, and diseases between the New World and Old World; initiated in 1493 when he sails across the Atlantic
Old World --> New World
wheat, olives, grapes, and garden vegetables; cattle , pigs, horses, sheep (____ World --> ____ World)
Africa and Asia --> New World
transfer rice, bananas, coconuts, and sugar cane (____ and _____ --> ____ World)
New World --> Old World
transfer of maize, potatoes, manioc, beans, squash, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, chilies, and chocolate; calorie increase and pop. increase (___ World --> ___ World)
Council of Indies
Royal power in place over population which supervised all gov.,ecclesiastical, and commercial activity in Spanish colonies,
Viceroyalties
Portugal's viceroyalty was problematic and took longer to establish; Spanish and Portuguese viceroys became large bureaucracies
encomienda
form of forced labor and tribute (Amer-Indians)
Potosi
one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America
sugar plantations
dominated Brazil; first used enslaved Amer-Indians to African slaves because they were cheaper; provided a monopoly on this cash crop
Bartolome de Las Casas
outlawed the enslavement of Amerindians--> low wage labor- just like enslavement
Vodun
new syncretic religion; involves voodoo and animal sacrifice; also called the Santeria; adopts elements of Arawak, Christianity, African tradition, and Freemasonry symbols to form this practice
Creoles
American born Spanish whites
mestizos
someone of mixed Amerindian and European descent
House of Burgesses
representatives of towns who met alone as deliberative body; distinguished English colonies from colonies of other European powers; was the first "authoritative house" of DEMOCRACY
Puritans
believed that God predestined souls to heaven/hell before birth
Massachusetts
homogeneous and less hierarchical, poor soil, smaller numbers of forced labor and based on families, powerful lower legislative class,
Iroquois Confederacy
alliance of 5 northeastern Amerindian peoples that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives; allied first with Dutch and later with English;
New France
Allies with Huron and Algonquin
coureurs de bois
(runners of the woods); young Frenchmen who were sent to live among native peoples to master their languages and customs; French fur traders, many of mixed Amerindian heritage; lived among and often married Amerindian peoples from North America;
French and Indian War
war in which France loses Canada to England and Louisiana to Spain
tobacco
main cash crop in North and South Carolina traded over to Europe especially France
southern cash crops
tobacco, indigo, and rice
New England economy
no cash crops; private corporations
French Economy
based on fur trade to get advanced guns; private companies
indentured servants
a migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years
Stono rebellion
a 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws
merchant banking
Jews; involves checking accounts, shareholding companies, money changing, loans, investments, etc.
Joan of Arc
led the French to victory in decisive battle during the Hundred Years War; inspired French soldiers and burned at the stake for her faith
Catholic Reformation
proceeding the Protestant Reformation, attempted by Catholics to get back on their feet and fix their ideals in religions; Council of Trent; Jesuit missionaries
manumission
one could buy their own freedom
Mulatto
one of the lower classes in the Spanish social class system, was a interbreed of African and Spanish
indulgences
a way the Catholic church used to gain money through tithes and these; could avoid sin by donating to the church or doing certain prayers
Dutch West India Company
seizes land in Brazil and West African slave trading stations for sugar plantations in Brazil; expelled by the Portuguese and turn attention to plantations in the West Indies
plantocracy
a small number of rich men who owned land and slaves
capitalism
banks; stocks, chartered trading companies are all examples of __________ where the government is in charge of the ebb and flow of the economy
mercantilism
government policy that protects trade and demands the accumulation of gold and silver; chartered companies, Navigation acts, Exclusif Stamp Tax
tarrifs
tax put on goods from other countries; done so that traders could only trade with their mother country; limits competition between goods and prices shift
Songhai
new empire in NW Africa; Muslims and Christians and Jews couldn't be slaves so most slaves in the Middle East converted to Islam; supplied slaves and gold
driver
the watcher of the slaves, keeping the slaves in line on behalf of higher power (plantocracy)
maroons
the term given to slaves who escaped from plantations and established communities in the mountains
Middle Passage
the term given to the journey from the New World to the old to transfer African slaves; abuse, disease, execution, suicide
Atlantic System
the triangular and clockwise network of trade that connects the American colonies, Spain, and England/France