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IR 56 Midterm
Terms in this set (49)
the institutions are hierarchically above national governments in the chain of governance within the EU. In some cases, the EU's various organs are the ultimate authority on the continent
1951 Treaty of Paris
creating the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) - first institution in the Union!
1957 Treaty of Rome/Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)
creating the European Economic Community (EEC) and European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)
1986 Single European Act (SEA)
formed the basis for the common market
1992 Treaty of Maastricht/Treaty on European Union (TEU)
creating the formal European Union (EU) and an economic and monetary union (the Euro) by 1999 - TEU & TFEU together form the constitutional basis of the Union
Treaty of Amsterdam in 1997, Treaty of Nice in 2001, and Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 - which consolidate and streamline EU institutional powers in the TEU/TFEU. Notably, the 2007 Lisbon Treaty added Article 50 - the now-famous exit clause
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
The is the organized, agreed foreign policy of the European Union for mainly security and defense diplomacy and action; initially established by Lisbon
Peace of Westphalia
In 1648, the European powers concluded two such conflicts - the 80 Years War between Spain and the Dutch Republic and the 30 Years War between (originally) the Protestant and Catholic European powers - in a series of treaties; The Westphalia agreements established the right of states to sovereignty, and a basis for self determination, but did not restore peace to Europe
an arrangement between great powers in which they agree to co-operate with one another in the pursuit of commonly agreed goals
Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
In the early 1900s, European states formed an Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), to meet regularly and encourage the resolution of disputes by peaceful means
The authors of the ____________ met in 1899 and 1907 to place limitations on war through rules on disarmament, the conduct of war, and war crimes, and established a Permanent International Court to resolve disputes between states
1st Geneva Convention
written in 1865, establishing protections and care for injured soldiers and noncombatants based on the U.S. Lieber Code - limitations on unlimited warfare
2nd Geneva Convention
(1906) extended these protections from just land-based combat to include sea-based combat, as navies took a prime location in national security
The Paris Peace Conference
Following the Concert of Europe and the Inter-parliamentary Union traditions of conferencing, the Allied victors of WWI met in 1919 at Versailles to discuss the post-war terms of peace.
They were informed by the Kantian notion of a perpetual peace among republics and the value of cooperating (among democracies) to prevent future conflict,
One of the mandates of the conference was the establishment of a League of Nations covenant (an agreement, but non-binding) to uphold peace after the war.
The League of Nations
Members would be expected to "respect and preserve" the territorial integrity of all members from aggression,
Aggression, "the only crime a state can commit against another state," a violation of territorial integrity
To disarm to the lowest point necessary to maintain national security,
To submit complaint and seek arbitration, and to wait at least three months, before going to war.
The League Covenant attracted 42 founding members in 1919, and an additional 21 between 1920 and 1937, mostly in Europe.
inadvertently led to the earliest precursor organizations of the European Union:
The Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) was founded in 1948 to administer aid from the _________________
called for limited sectoral integration to place French and German war-making coal and steel sectors under one supranational authority
OG member countries
West Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg!
a group of countries that have agreed to charge the same import taxes as each other and usually to allow free trade between themselves
France's Empty Chair Crisis
1st President of the European Commission Hallstein wished to create an autonomous 'self-financing' EEC budget.
In 1966, majority voting was introduced in the Council of Ministers.
France perceived these as a major threat to national sovereignty and withdrew from the meetings of the Council of Ministers for six months until the adoption of the Luxembourg Compromise.
The compromise was: On matters of 'vital national interest' to one or more member states, unanimity would be required.
Integration would be dictated by the pace of the most reluctant member state, until after DeGaulle's resignation in 1969
Hague Summit (1969)
With the goal of creating an economic and monetary union for the first time (in the absence of DeGaulle).
Greater monetary solidarity needed due to very uneven economic performances of the member states in the 1960s and early 1970s.
French devaluation and the strength of German Mark were threatening the economic balance of power between the two core countries.
British entry would be allowed, to limit German potential to displace France as the center of gravity in the Economic Community
The "Velvet Revolutions"
In 1989, the Polish 'Solidarity' labour movement forced free election and the communists lost.
Moscow's acceptance of the Polish election triggered a chain of events:
Reformists in the Hungary pressed for democracy.
Mass protests in East Germany; the Wall falls November 9, 1989.
Democracy in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany by the end of 1989
Copenhagen Criteria (1993)
Stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy,
The rule of law,
Human rights, and respect and protection of minorities,
The existence of a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union
Maastricht Treaty (1992)
Established a monetary union by 1999 and a single currency (the Euro) by 2002.
Also set up the "Three Pillars" of the EU
The "Three Pillars"
"The European Communities" handled socioeconomic and environmental policies.
The European Community (the European Economic Community expanded and renamed), the European Coal and Steel Community (until 2002), and EURATOM.
The Common Security and Foreign Policy
Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters (Cooperation on crime)
These would be revised by successive iterations of EU treaties and institutions
Amsterdam Treaty (1997)
Tidied up the Maastricht Treaty but left the main EU institutions in tact:
More common social policies,
European Parliament powers modestly expanded,
"Flexible integration" for states lagging in institutional change, and
Closer cooperation across policy areas
Nice Treaty (2000)
Reformed the main institutions:
Council voting reformed to reflect both population size and majority rule.
Number of European Parliament members expanded to 732 (reflecting population of new member states).
Capped the size of the European Commission at 27 or fewer.
Introduced rules for cooperation - that have yet to be used
2004 Constitutional Treaty (Failed)
Intended to establish a Constitution for Europe - not ratified in full, but some components persisted:
Improved decision-making rules for Council of Ministers and slightly more majority voting (less import of weighted votes for larger states).
A Charter of Fundamental Rights:
Dignity, basic freedoms, equality, solidarity, citizens' rights, and justice.
More coherent foreign policy decision making.
France and Netherlands are unable to support the treaty - the Lisbon treaty replaces the 2004 treaty with new compromises
Lisbon Treaty (2009)
Democratized the EU treaties by redistributing authority especially to EP but also creating a separate foreign policy entity (EEAS),
But also strengthened the Council president, ensuring a national check on EP policy introduced,
Added a charter of fundamental rights,
Officially established a European Central Bank,
AND added, significantly, an exit clause: Art. 50
European Commission (Brussels)
Executive body of the EU...Promotes the general interest of the EU by proposing and enforcing legislation as well as by implementing policies and the EU budget.
Exclusive initiator of the legislative process within the EU.
Decisions relating to the Common Foreign & Security Policy are made unanimously by the Commission.
The principal policy-maker (creator) in the EU!
Implement EU law in member states, "guardian of the Treaties"
Responsible to the European Parliament
President of the European Commission
Jean-Claude Juncker, former PM of
Luxembourg, since 2014
European Council (Brussels)
Defines general political directions and priorities for the EU.
Heads of State or Government, together with its President, President of the Commission, and since 2007, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
Meets at least 4 times a year.
Prior to 2007, only an informal institutional structure - only recognized as an EU institution by the Lisbon Treaty
President of the European Council
Originally an internal role, President of the EC is increasingly important in matters of common defence and foreign policy.
Chairs and conducts meetings of the Council, ensures continuity of its work, facilitates cohesion and consensus, and reports on Council work to the European Parliament.
Appointed every 2.5 years by qualified majority of the European Council.
Donald Tusk, former PM of Poland, since December 2014
Council of the European Union
together with the European Parliament, the Council is the main decision-making body of the EU.
Government ministers from each EU country meet to discuss, amend and adopt laws, and coordinate policies (derived from the 1958 Council of European Economic Community).
The ministers have the authority to commit their governments to the actions agreed on in the meetings
(Luxembourg, Strasburg, & Brussels)
The other EU legislative institution, more powerful than the Council.
751 members (MEPs), grouped by political affiliation not country.
Degressive proportionality each state has a minimum 6 seats, maximum 96, not to exceed 750 plus the president.
Direct elections every 5 years; number of MEPs distributed according to national quotas based on population size.
Last elections: May 22-25, 2014 (next in 2019)
3 main roles: legislative, supervisory, budgetary (shared with Council of the EU)
President of the European Parliament
President: Antonio Tajani, Italian former career journalist and former Commissioner for Industry and Entrepreneurship
Court of Justice of the European Union (Luxembourg)
The highest court in the EU in matters of EU law:
Hears appeals from national courts.
Interpret EU law and ensure equal application across members.
28 judges (one per member), but cases heard in groups of 3, 5, or 15 judges. 11 advocates general.
The General Court (competition, trade, and agricultural law)
European Court of Human Rights
Established in 1953 by the European Treaty on Human Rights.
47 member states (including Russia ?! )
One for each member of the Council of Europe (different from the EC) - an IO for human rights, democracy, and rule of law in Europe.
Supranational court that hears cases alleging violations of the European human rights treaties.
Complaints can only be lodged by individuals or groups of nationals - not states.
Cannot make binding laws, but can enforce (compel compliance) on the European Convention on Human Rights by allowing nationals to sue for financial compensation.
European Central Bank
Governed by the heads of all EU national banks, a president and VP selected by Parliament.
Sets the interest rates at which it lends to commercial banks in the Eurozone, thus controlling money supply and inflation.
Manages the Eurozone's foreign currency reserves and the buying or selling of currencies to balance exchange rates.
Ensures that financial markets & institutions are well supervised by national authorities, and that payment systems work well.
Ensures the safety and soundness of the European banking system.
Authorizes production of euro banknotes by eurozone countries.
Monitors price trends and assesses risks to price stability.
External Action Service
The European External Action Service (EEAS) is the EU's diplomatic service - functioning much like a Dept. of State or Foreign Services.
It manages diplomatic relations and strategic partnerships with non-EU countries.
Works with the national diplomatic services of EU countries, the UN and other leading powers.
Not on security issues per se ...
High Representative Of The Union For Foreign Affairs And Security Policy
Chief representative and coordinator of the Common Security and Foreign Policy, represents the EU on issues of common national security interest.
Created by the Treaty of Amsterdam.
Expanded by Lisbon to give a seat on
the Council and the Commission.
Federica Mogherini, former Italian
Minister of Foreign Affairs and
International Cooperation, since 2014
a problem which multiple actors wish to address but have difficulty pursuing due to lack of information about the intent and interests of the other actors
Rationality vs. Bounded Rationality
Rationality means states make choices that best suit their self interest.
Bounded rationality means states satisfice or choose the acceptable, if not the best possible, option
"Inner Six"/ EEC
"Outer Seven"/ EFTA
1993 Copenhagen Council
The goal of the Copenhagen Council was to protect the club, by not widening without also deepening.
But also to address the six states that had or were concluding bi-lateral agreements with Europe:
Bulgaria, the Czech Republic (1993), Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia (1993)
And four states that had only some support for membership:
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Slovenia (the Baltics)
Their eligibility was confirmed in 1994
Amsterdam Treaty (1999), Arts. 5 & 49
Any European state that respects the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law may apply to become a member of the Union
Helsinki European Council (1999)
Candidate countries must resolve border disputes peacefully, by ICJ if necessary
It was signed in June 1985 by five of the ten member states of the then European Economic Community near the town of Schengen, Luxembourg.
It proposed the gradual abolition of border checks at the signatories' common borders.
Today, it refers to a much broader area in which EU citizens can move freely
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