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EXAM 2 A&P
Terms in this set (60)
- body needs to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help you digest food
- high density lipoproteins= good (should be 60mg/dl+)
- low density lipoproteins= bad (should be less than 100mg/dl)
*contributes to structure of cell wall
*makes up digestive bile
less than 200mg is considered healthy
hydrophilic and hydrophobic
makes up a layer called a phospholipid bilayer and makes up the cell membrane and is critical for a cell's ability to function.
Membrane proteins stud the phospholipid bilayer; these respond to cell signals or act as enzymes or transporting mechanisms for the cell membrane. The phospholipid bilayer readily allows essential molecules such as water, oxygen and carbon dioxide to cross the membrane, but very large molecules cannot enter the cell in this way or may not be able to at all. With this combination of phospholipids and proteins, the cell is said to be selectively permeable, allowing only certain substances in freely and others via more complex interactions.
also known as the pericellular matrix, is a glycoprotein and glycolipid covering that surrounds the cell membranes of some bacteria, epithelia, and other cells.
a carbohydrate-enriched coating that covers the outside of many eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells, particularly bacteria.
The result is a thick, sticky layer that helps cells stay put in environments with lots of physical stress.
They do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. Proteins are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids.
is a group of membranes and organelles in eukaryotic cells that works together to modify, package, and transport lipids and proteins.
having a lower osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically a body fluid or intracellular fluid.
A solution that contains fewer dissolved particles (such as salt and other electrolytes) than is found in normal cells and blood.
H20 goes in cell
H20 in and H20 out
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
requires carrier proteins
1) primary (directly from ATP_
2) secondary (indirectly from ionic molecules)
Primary- shape change
- example of pumps= calcium hydrogen
- reverses leakage
- resting membrane potential
- Na out of cell and K back in against gradient
Secondary- uses concentration gradient
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient
3 junction types and function
1) Tight Junctions
- seal adjacent epithelial cells in a narrow band just beneath their apical surface. They consist of a network of claudins and other proteins. Tight junctions perform two vital functions: They limit the passage of molecules and ions through the space between cells.
2) Gap Junctions
- They directly connect the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between cells.
3) Adherent/Anchoring Junctions
- are protein complexes that occur at cell-cell junctions in epithelial and endothelial tissues, usually more basal than tight junctions.
Organelles and their functions
what ions play a key role in resting membrane potential
Sodium-potassium pumps move two potassium ions inside the cell as three sodium ions are pumped out to maintain the negatively-charged membrane inside the cell; this helps maintain the resting potential.
which of the following is folded RNAs that act as a switch that can turn protein synthesis off and on in response to certain environmental conditions
BLANK is the process of making proteins from RNA
The process of translation can be seen as the decoding of instructions for making proteins, involving mRNA in transcription as well as tRNA. The genes in DNA encode protein molecules, which are the "workhorses" of the cell, carrying out all the functions necessary for life.
Layers of the epidermis in order
Match the changes in skin color to the clinical indication
Jaundice= yellowing (accumulation of bile pigments in blood)
is a condition of unwanted, male-pattern hair growth in women.
also known as spot baldness, is a condition in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body. Often it results in a few bald spots on the scalp, each about the size of a coin.
is a common skin problem. It causes a red, itchy rash and white scales. When it affects the scalp, it is called "dandruff." It can be on parts of the face as well, including the folds around the nose and behind the ears, the forehead, and the eyebrows and eyelids.
inflammation of the skin
Which gland produces which type of secretions
- meaning 'sweat', are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat. Sweat glands are a type of exocrine gland, which are glands that produce and secrete substances onto an epithelial surface by way of a duct.
- are specialized sudoriferous glands (sweat glands) located subcutaneously in the external auditory canal, in the outer 1/3. Ceruminous glands are simple, coiled, tubular glands made up of an inner secretory layer of cells and an outer myoepithelial layer of cells. They are classed as apocrine glands.
- the milk-producing gland of women or other female mammals.
- a small gland in the skin which secretes a lubricating oily matter (sebum) into the hair follicles to lubricate the skin and hair.
Tactical (Merkel) cells
are located in the basal epidermal layer of the skin. Merkel cells, also known as Merkel-Ranvier cells or tactile epithelial cells, are oval-shaped mechanoreceptors essential for light touch sensation and found in the skin of vertebrates.
Langer lines of skin tension, or sometimes called cleavage lines, are topological lines drawn on a map of the human body. They correspond to the natural orientation of collagen fibers in the dermis, and are generally perpendicular to the orientation of the underlying muscle fibers.
These are commonly known as skin creases or skin joints. ... The skin along these lines is thin and firmly bound to the deep fascia. The lines are prominent opposite the flexure of the joints, particularly on the palms, soles and digits.
Describe the pigments of the skin and hair
Skin colour or pigmentation is determined by three pigments or chromophores: Melanin - a brown/black or red/yellow polymer produced by melanosomes in melanocyte cells. Haemoglobin in red blood cells in the superficial vasculature.
which of the following functions in allowing an insect on the surface of the skin to be felt?
clinical concern with burns, first and second
First-degree burns are considered mild compared to other burns. They result in pain and reddening of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin). Second-degree burns (partial thickness burns) affect the epidermis and the dermis (lower layer of skin). ... They result in white or blackened, charred skin that may be numb.
describe the structure or function of the following cells:
- Fibroblast: A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, produces the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing. Fibroblasts are the most common cells of connective tissue in animals.
- Chondroblast: are the only cells found in healthy cartilage. They produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix, which consists mainly of collagen and proteoglycans.
- Glial Cells: to surround neurons and hold them in place, to supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons, to insulate one neuron from another, and to destroy and remove the carcasses of dead neurons (clean up).
- Keratinocytes: are maintained at various stages of differentiation in the epidermis and are responsible for forming tight junctions with the nerves of the skin. They also keep Langerhans cells of the epidermis and lymphocytes of the dermis in place.
- Melanocytes: they form a close association with keratinocytes via their dendrites. Melanocytes are well known for their role in skin pigmentation, and their ability to produce and distribute melanin has been studied extensively.
does not mix with water
attracted to water
is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane. All transmembrane proteins are IMPs, but not all IMPs are transmembrane proteins. IMPs comprise a significant fraction of the proteins encoded in an organism's genome.
are membrane proteins that adhere only temporarily to the biological membrane with which they are associated. These proteins attach to integral membrane proteins, or penetrate the peripheral regions of the lipid bilayer.
is the pressure that is exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due to the force of gravity. Hydrostatic pressure increases in proportion to depth measured from the surface because of the increasing weight of fluid exerting downward force from above.
the pressure that would have to be applied to a pure solvent to prevent it from passing into a given solution by osmosis, often used to express the concentration of the solution.
is a type of transcellular transport in which various macromolecules are transported across the interior of a cell. Macromolecules are captured in vesicles on one side of the cell, drawn across the cell, and ejected on the other side.
the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans.
is a form of facilitated transport involving the passive movement of molecules along their concentration gradient, guided by the presence of another molecule - usually an integral membrane protein forming a pore or channel.
Of a cell which does not have a nucleus.
A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a larger one.
are integral membrane proteins that serve as channels in the transfer of water, and in some cases, small solutes across the membrane. They are conserved in bacteria, plants, and animals. Structural analyses of the molecules have revealed the presence of a pore in the center of each aquaporin molecule.
the concentration of a solution expressed as the total number of solute particles per liter.
is an integral membrane protein that is involved in the transport of many differing types of molecules across the cell membrane. The symporter works in the plasma membrane and molecules are transported across the cell membrane at the same time, and is, therefore, a type of cotransporter.
is a cotransporter and integral membrane protein involved in secondary active transport of two or more different molecules or ions across a phospholipid membrane such as the plasma membrane in opposite directions.
is a type of cell / cell or cell / extracellular matrix signalling in multicellular organisms that requires close contact. ... A membrane ligand (protein, oligosaccharide, lipid) and a membrane protein of two adjacent cells interact.
Autocrine signaling is a special case of paracrine signaling where the secreting cell has the ability to respond to the secreted signaling molecule. Synaptic signaling is a special case of paracrine signaling (for chemical synapses) or juxtacrine signaling (for electrical synapses) between neurons and target cells.
the death of cells which occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.
is a detox process your body undergoes to clean out damaged cells and regenerate new ones. A protein called p62 activates to induce autophagy and is the key to an improved human lifespan over time.
is how generic embryonic cells become specialized cells. This occurs through a process called gene expression. Gene expression is the specific combination of genes that are turned on or off (expressed or repressed), and this is what dictates how a cell functions.
the enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increase in the reproduction rate of its cells, often as an initial stage in the development of cancer.
the study of the microscopic structure of tissues.
apical membrane. the layer of plasma membrane on the apical side (the side toward the lumen) of the epithelial cells in a body tube or cavity, separated from the basolateral membrane by the zonula occludens.
the basal surface is the bottom edge of the cell or tissue adjacent to the basement membrane. In particular, the epithelial tissue is a group of cells (called epithelial cells) that lie together to carry out a common function. The epithelial tissue acts as a covering.
is differentiated from the more visible terminal or androgenic hair, which develops only during and after puberty, usually to a greater extent on men than it does on women.
characterized by or associated with a lack of blood vessels.
are thick, strong, pigmented hairs that have fully matured. These hairs can be found in abundance on the scalp, in the pubic region, under the arms, and on the face (males only). The opposite of a terminal hair is called a vellus hair.
an oily secretion of the sebaceous glands.
a sequence of three nucleotides which together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule.