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Prentice Hall Physical Science Chapter 9
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Gravity
Terms in this set (37)
motion
an object's change in position relative to a reference point
reference point
a place or object used for comparison to determine if an object is in motion
International System of Units
a system of measurement based on multiples of ten and on established measures of mass, length, and time
meter
The basic SI unit of length
speed
the distance an object travels per unit of time
average speed
Total distance divided by total time
instantaneous speed
the rate at which an object is moving at a given instant in time
velocity
speed in a given direction
slope
the steepness of a line on a graph, which is -
how fast one variable changes in relation to the other.
acceleration
a rate of change of velocity
distance
the total length of the actual path between two points.
displacement
the length and direction that an object has moved in a straight line between its starting point and its ending point.
vector
a quantity that consists of both a magnitude and a direction
How do you know if an object is in motion?
An object is in motion if it changes position relative to a reference point.
What is displacement?
Displacement is the length and direction that an object has moved in a straight line between its starting point and its ending point.
How are distance and displacement similar?
They have the same starting and end point.
How are distance and displacement different?
Displacement is a vector, distance is not!
Displacement is the length between starting point and end point in a straight line, distance is the actual length travelled to get from one to another.
How do you calculate speed?
Divide the distance the object travels by the amount of time it takes to travel that distance.
How can you describe changes in velocity?
Changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, changes in direction, or both.
What is velocity?
It is speed in a given direction. It is a vector, with a magnitude (speed) and direction.
How do you calculate slope?
By dividing the rise by the run.
Slope = Rise/Run
What does the slope of a distance-versus-time graph show you about the motion of an object?
The speed of the object.
What is the everyday definition of acceleration?
the process of speeding up!
What is the scientific definition of acceleration?
the rate at which velocity changes with time.
Since a change in velocity can involve either a change of speed or direction, in science acceleration refers to:
increasing speed, decreasing speed or changing direction.
What is another word for negative acceleration?
Deceleration.
How can a car be accelerating if it is speed is constant at 65 mph?
By changing direction.
How do you calculate acceleration?
Final Velocity -(minus) Initial Velocity / (divided by) Time.
A car can accelerate from rest to 28m/s in 7 seconds. Find the car's acceleration?
28-0m/s divided by 7 = 4m/s2
What are the three ways an object can accelerate?
Increase speed, decrease speed, change direction.
energy
The ability to do work or cause change.
potential energy
Stored energy that results from the position or shape of an object.
work
what is done when a force is exerted on an object causing it to move.
kinetic energy
Energy that an object has due to its motion.
gravitational potential energy
Potential energy related to an object's height.
elastic potential energy
The energy of stretched or compressed objects.
law of conservation of energy
The rule that energy cannot be created or destroyed.
mechanical energy
An object's combined kinetic energy and potential energy.
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