Upgrade to remove ads
Sociology Chapter 4
Terms in this set (59)
Encompasses the ideas, values, practices, and material objects that allow a group of people, even an entire society, to carry out their collective lives in relative order and harmony.
What 2 things does knowledge of a common culture lead people to do?
1. Behave in similar ways
2. Adopt a similar way of looking at the world
What are the internal changes that affect culture?
1. Average age of the population within that group. Result is that the culture increasingly reflects the needs and interests of younger or older people.
What are the external changes that affect culture?
1. Technological innovations. Newcomers to the cultural group and those who have been established must constantly learn new aspects of culture/unlearn those that are no longer relevant
Why do cultures differ from one another?
Because each involves a unique mix of values, norms, objects, and language inherited from the past, derived from other groups, and created anew by each group
What are the broadest elements of culture?
The general and abstract standards defining what a group or society as a whole considers good, desirable, right, or important. Values express the ideals of everything from a group to an entire society.
Who was Alexis de Tocqueville?
French writer who wrote Democracy in America, where he detailed what he perceived as America's values. Although written almost 200 years ago, vast majority of Americans would accept most of his described values
What were some American values during the early 19th century?
4. Taste for physical comfort
6. Economic prosperity
What are norms?
The informal rules, based on values, that guide what people do and how they live. They tell us what we should and should not do in a given situation. Informal, usually not written down
What are laws?
The norms that have been codified (written down and formally enforced through institutions such as the state)
*Consequences for failing to follow a law are very different from failing to follow a norm
What are norms reinforced through?
Negative sanctions (punishment) & positive sanctions (praise)
1. Sanctions may be applied when norms are observed as well as when they are violated. Sometimes sanctions are enough to enforce norms.
Why do most people follow norms?
Primarily because there are sanctions associated with them
Who was William Graham Sumner?
Made the distinction between folkways & mores.
Both exist on a continuum so it's hard to distinguish where a folkway ends and where a more begins
What are folkways?
Norms that are relatively unimportant. Carry few sanctions with them regardless of whether they are observed or violated.
Ex: Texting in class
What are mores?
More important norms whose violation is likely to be met with severe negative sanctions.
Ex: Using a phone to cheat on an exam
What is material culture?
Encompasses all of the artifacts and "stuff" that are reflections or manifestations of culture.
Ex: Clothes, phones, etc. Objects shaped by culture, like Monopoly, a financially oriented game which was patented in the mid 1930's.
1. Material culture shapes the larger culture: by playing Monopoly, children learn to support a culture that values wealth/material success
2. Material culture exists in relationships among various objects.
Ex: one brand being viewed as better than another in that certain listing of object brands
What is Symbolic Culture?
Includes those aspects of culture that exist in nonmaterial forms.
2 key forms are values & norms
More important than material culture, although there is no clear line between material/non material culture. Most material phenomena have symbolic aspects
Ex: Buying American made products to demonstrate patriotism
What is one important aspect of Symbolic Culture?
Language: a set of meaningful symbols that enable communication.
1. Allows for the storage & development of culture (orally)
2. Facilitates communication within a culture- words reflect how we think and see the world
Communication between cultures is never as easy or as clear as communication within a culture
What is Ideal Culture?
What the norms and values of society lead us to think people should believe and do
Gap between ideal culture and real culture
What is Real Culture?
What people actually think and do in their everyday lives.
What is an Ideology?
A set of shared beliefs that explains the social world and guides people's actions.
Ex: Meritocracy: the ideology that all people have an equal chance of succeeding economically based on their hard work and skills.
What are subcultures?
Groups of people who accept much of the dominant culture, but are set apart from it by one or more culturally significant characteristics.
Ex: LGBT community, Hispanics, Hasidic Jews, Muslims.
Brand communities also exist, which are developed around a particular brand name product
Ex: Harley-Davidson motorcycle riders
What is an example of a deviant subculture?
Great Britain's "football hooligans," those who often engage in violence at, or surrounding, soccer matches.
What are countercultures?
Groups that not only differ from the dominant culture, but whose norms and values might be incompatible with those of the dominant culture. May intentionally act in opposition to the dominant culture.
1. Introduced by Theodore Roszak in the late 1960's in reference to hippies, antiwar activists, and radical students.
Early Ex: The KKK: rejected American value of equal treatment
What is the "voluntary simplicity movement?"
An important contemporary counterculture. Created by sociologist, Juliet Schor, who critiqued the American culture's emphasis on "work and spend." Also criticizes the commercialization of childhood.
1. Suggests we work less, spend less, and devote ourselves to more meaningful activity.
What is an example of a countercultural group with a focus on globalization?
The World Social Forum (WSF). Believes that "another world is possible." This world is less capitalistic and allows for democratic decision making on issues that affect large populations.
1. Those who accept this are part of a counterculture because they reject the traditional capitalist culture
What was the Culture War?
A conflict pitting a subculture or counterculture against the dominant culture. Also refers to conflicts between dominant groups in a society.
Sometimes lead to disruption of social, political, economic status quo.
Who is involved in the major Culture War today?
Those on the conservative end of politics, and those on the liberal end
What is Multiculturalism?
An environment in which cultural differences are accepted and appreciated by both the state and the majority group.
These cultural groups can be based on race, ethnicity, nationality, or language
Not always celebrated when it comes to ethnicity or national origin
1. Recent for many European societies like Scandinavia and the Netherlands. Have traditionally been almost monocultures. After the 1950's labor shortage, immigrants began emigrating to Northern Europe, and stayed.
What is Assimilation?
The dominant culture's main interest. Integrating the minority group into the mainstream
* Has declined somewhat in 1990's-2000's as Latinos and Chinese immigrants find it difficult to assimilate in the US
What are Identity Politics?
When groups use their power to strengthen the position of the cultural group with which they identify. Goal of these movements is the creation of a multicultural society that accepts minorities
Ex: black power, feminist, gay pride movements
What is Cultural Relativism?
Main idea is that aspects of culture such as norms and values need to be understood within the context of a person's own culture, and that there are no universally accepted norms and values.
Different cultures simply have different norms and values, and there is no way to say that one set of norms is better than another
1. Related to multiculturalism & identity politics
What is Ethnocentrism?
The belief that the norms, values, traditions, and material and symbolic aspects of one's own culture are are better than those of other cultures.
1. Runs counter to Cultural Relativism
2. This is a barrier to greater cultural understanding
What is High Culture?
Associated with societal elites, seen as the product of artists or skilled professionals, and thought of as aesthetically rich.
Ex: music of Beethoven, art of Rembrandt
What is Low Culture ("Popular Culture")?
Associated with the masses, seen as the homogenized and standardized product of massive corporations, and viewed as lacking in redeeming aesthetic qualities.
1. Not all low culture is corporate in nature
Ex: Literature of Stephanie Meyer (Twilight Series), music of Black Eyed Peas
Who was Pierre Bourdieu?
A prominent French sociologist who argued that there is a struggle for power within society between the elites and the masses, a struggle that is *
* won by the elites.
1. As a result, elites are allowed to define what is considered high/low culture.
2. Elites exclude the masses from learning about/creating high culture by creating expensive training schools/schools of higher education
Conclusion: what is regarded as high culture is the result of victory in a struggle for power
What are 3 ways in which culture is changing?
1. Global Culture
2. Consumer Culture
Why do some scholars think global values exist?
1. All people share a biological structure which produces universal tendencies, including common values.
Most pervasive argument is traced to globalization
What is one of the major findings of the World Values Survey?
Global shift from valuing material success and economic prosperity to valuing quality of life issues like free time and self expression
What are 2 emerging global values?
2. Liberalization of sexuality
The imposition of one dominant cultures on other cultures
1. Tends to destroy local cultures
Ex: Handmade saris being replaced by machine made saris, replacement of professional letter writers with the cell phone
Involves the importation by other countries of a variety of cultural elements-products, images, technologies, practices, norms, values, and behaviors- that are closely associated with the US
Ex: American movie industry, food
An aversion to America in general, as well as to the influence of its culture abroad
Local cultures modify inputs and impositions from other cultures by integrating them with local realities that combine elements of both cultures
How does cultural imperialism need to be examined?
In the context of the counterreactions to it, counterflows from elsewhere in the world, and the combination of global and local
One in which the core ideas and material objects relate to consumption and in which consumption is a primary source of meaning in life
*Was noticed in 1970 when observers noticed that developed societies were deriving more meaning from consumption
What has been called the premier consumer culture?
What was the rise of consumer culture linked to?
The rise of the modern world in the West
What was a key development to consumer culture in the mid-twentieth century?
Children's sections in department stores
What is "pester power?"
The ability for children to nag their parents into buying something-effective not only in selling children's products but also for getting children to influence their parents' purchases
What percentage of Americans had used the Internet to buy a product online in 2000?
What did that number increase to by 2010?
When did the Great Recession last?
Late 2007 to mid-2009
What is a postconsumer culture?
When consumers lose their ability/desire to consume for a period of time. They have reasons to spend carefully, and a fear of a recession return. Consumers are growing increasingly embarrassed in regard to showy demonstrations of wealth
Describe the change in the US savings rate
During the first decade of the 21st century, the personal savings rate averaged about 2.7% of disposable income, approached zero at several points.
At height of Great Recession= more than 8%
Mid-2011: Rate still exceeded 5%
Involves radically transforming an intended message in popular culture, especially one associated with the mass media
1. Form of social protest aimed at revealing underlying realities of which consumers may be unaware. (Ex: cigarette smoking and its dangers)
Ex: Magazine, Adbusters. Main targets are in realm of consumption. Idea is to change a corporation's ads which are aimed at increasing consumption, to anticorporate, anticonsumption ads
Has the characteristics of all culture, including distinctive values and norms. More fluid than culture in general
What are some distinctive values of cyberculture?
2. Knowledge sharing
Values have their roots in the open-source software that emerged before computing became an attractive commercial opportunity
This set is often in folders with...
Intro Sociology Chapter 3 Culture
chapter 1 sociology quiz
You might also like...
Ritzer Sociology Chapter 3
Chapter 3 Essentials of Sociology George Ritzer
Sociology -Ch 4
Sociology Exam 1
Other sets by this creator
Kaplan's Word Groups
Gre Vocab 3
GRE Vocab 2
Other Quizlet sets
Past paper questions in computing
Economics: Competitive markets (demand a…
Often Missed - Real Estate Course
Mastering Biology chap 2-4