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US History UNIT C: 1930's [Ramsey BHS Spring 2019]
Terms in this set (35)
Bonus Army (1932)
Officially known as the Bonus Expeditionary Force (BEF), this rag-tag group of 20,000 veterans marched on Washington to demand immediate payment of bonuses earned during World War I. General Douglas MacArthur dispersed them with tear gas and bayonets.
Collections of makeshift shelters built by homeless people during the Hoover Administration.
This was the style of capitalism in which the government had no interference with the economy
a policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interfering.
32nd President of the United States, Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms
Relief, Recovery, Reform
The New Deal programs were known as the three "Rs"; Roosevelt believed that together Relief, Reform, and Recovery could bring economic stability to the nation.
First 100 days of FDR
New Deal; getting the economy rolling again
Fireside chats by FDR
RADIO ADDRESSES TO COUNTRY TO INFORM PUBLIC ABOUT Great Depression and later WWII.
Government agencies that came to be known by the first initials of their names under FDR New Deal
gave FDR limited powers for administrative reforms, including the key new Executive Office in the White House.
FDR First Inaugural Address
"The only thing we have to fear is fear itself"
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
Margaret Mead (1901-1978)
wrote bestseller Coming of Age in Samoa, which detailed how it was a symbol of pride for Samoan girls to have as many lovers as possible; showed that relatively liberal attitudes toward sexuality did exist across parts of Polynesia, helping open American and European eyes to the possibility of change within our own culture
Author of "Gone with the Wind"
massive drought in the Midwest during the Great Depression
The Grapes of Wrath
John Steinbeck's novel about a struggling farm family during the Great Depression. Gave a face to the violence and exploitation that migrant farm workers faced in America
Farmers leaving the Dust Bowl for California
Attempt by Roosevelt to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal. Plan died in congress and made opponents of New Deal inflamed.
New Deal Opposition
Refers to the mixed reactions to FDR's domestic legislation. Involved the following: Critics - Attacks from pro-business conservatives / the right; protest movements - Upton Sinclair's EPIC (End poverty in California), Huey Long's "Share our Wealth", Father Charles Coughlin / "Radio Priest," Dr. Francis Townsend (Townsend Plan); Supreme Court Rulings of FDR's legislation as unconstitutional; Support - Blacks, Indians (Reversal of Dawes Severalty Act), Women, Americans living in the "sunbelt"
A plan proposed by Francis Townsend in 1933 that would give $200 a month (about $3,300 today) to citizens over the age of sixty. Townsend Clubs sprang up across the country in support of the plan, mobilizing mass support for old-age pensions.
A Catholic priest from Michigan who was critical of FDR on his radio show. His radio show morphed into being severly against Jews during WWII and he was eventually kicked off the air, however before his fascist (?) rants, he was wildly popular among those who opposed FDR's New Deal.
Political leader from Louisiana who criticized the New Deal
Trickle Down Economics
Hoover's strategy battling the Great Depression in which the money is given to the big corporations and eventually they will pay their workers more, and then the workers will spend their money and save the economy.
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
Budget in which revenues are equal to spending
Herbert Hoover's belief that people must be self-reliant and not depend upon the federal government for assistance.
Government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes
A famous African American concert singer who had her first performance in 1935, dazzling the audience and launching herself into fame. The next year she performed at the White House by presidential invitation, and performed on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial when the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to let her rent Constitution Hall (Eleanor Roosevelt and several others resigned after this decision).
Schecter v. the United States, 1935
a decision by the Supreme Court of the US that declared regulations of the poultry industry that were part of the New Deal unconstitutional. This was a unanimous decision that rendered the National Industrial Recovery Act, a main component of President Roosevelt's New Deal, unconstitutional. FDR would soon respond with "court packing plan" that would lead to constitutional crisis. Court eventually backed down and New Deal got through, but it hurt FDR
Wagner Act (1935)
officially "National Labor Relations Act"; established National Labor Relations Board to administer labor laws and union elections; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands. Highest legislative achievement for unions in US history.
a leader who appeals to citizens' emotions to obtain power
Interior Secretary under the Roosevelt administration. He organized liberal Republicans for Roosevelt in 1932.
He served as United States Secretary of the Interior for 13 years, from 1933 to 1946, the longest tenure of anyone to hold the office, and the second longest-serving Cabinet member in U.S. history after James Wilson.
Another reformer who felt the New Deal had not gone far enough was FRANCIS TOWNSEND, a doctor from Long Beach, California. Townsend proposed the OLD AGE REVOLVING PENSION. This plan called for every American over the age of sixty to retire to open up jobs for the younger unemployed. The retirees would receive a monthly check for $200, a considerable income during the Depression. There was one catch. The recipients had to agree to spend the entire sum within a month. Townsend argued that this plan would ignite the economy, as well as provide for a proper pension for those who had worked so hard for so long.
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