What was the Freedman's Bureau's greatest achievement
Provided practical aid to 4,000,000 newly freed African Americans in their transition from slavery to freedom.
What were the black codes of the south?
Codes that prevented blacks from owning property, marrying, testifying in court, voting, holding office, serving on juries, or bearing arms.
What did the 14th amendment declare?
national citizenship for all us citizens
What problems resulted with the passage of the 15th amendment?
Bill of rights passed without the mention of blacks, riots broke out after. Amendment prohibits each government in the US from denying a citizen the right to vote on terms of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
What is sharecropping?
Type of farming in which former slaves farmed others land in exchange for farm supplies and a share of the crop.
What was the most important aspect of the fourteenth amendment?
Equality before law regardless of race
How did the American working class fare in the late 19th century?
lots of available jobs, share cropping, rise of new social classes
What was the aim of Carlisle, a boarding school for indians?
To americanize indian children with education
What occurred during the second industrial revolution?
Most rapid economic revolution ever including explosive economic growth, abundance of natural resources, growing jobs, expanding market for goods, availability of capital for investment.
What was the focus of "In how the other half lives"?
Showed accounts of living conditions in urban/poor areas with photographs
What did the Dawes act of 1887 do?
encouraged whit norms to indians, broke up indian settlement into small land portions. Very unfair indians lost a lot of land.
Why did the ghost dance scare whites?
they feared a general uprising when indians were singing/dancing in large groups.
What happened at the Haymarket affair?
Labor strike, someone threw a bomb into the crowd, police officer died, police open fired, eight anarchists arrested and tried.
What did Alfred Thayer Mahan argue for in 1890?
was in favor of increasing the navy, stated that no nation could prosper without a large fleet of ships engaged in international trade, protected by a navy.
What were journalists who worked for newspapers like William Randolph Hearst's New york journal called?
Yellow Journalists
What was not part of the populist platform of 1892?
black rights
How did william mckinley justify the annexation of the philippines by the US?
By saying it was americas duty to uplift and civilize them. He said they were incapable of goerning themselves and he could not return them to spain, france, or germany.
What di the court declare in Plessy Vs. Ferguson (1896)?
separate but equal
Who were frequently lynched in the late nineteenth century?
African Americans
How did membership differ in the American Federation of Labor?
exclusion of blacks, women, and immigrants. only skilled white male workers
What were newspaper and magazine writers who exposed the ills of industrial and urban life, fueling the progressive movement known as?
What cause was not widely championed by progressives?
civil rights for african americans
What were settlement houses?
Houses for the poor and immigrants to americanize and reduce poverty
Who was the writer whose work encouraged the passage of the meat inspection act?
Upton Sinclair, the Jungle
what was the ellis island of the west?
Angel Island
What was the result of the triangle shirtwaist fire?
146 girls dead. Changed Labor laws and Labor Union laws. Made government more involved in regulating labor.
What were nickelodeons?
cheap 5 cent movies
Who pioneered scientific management?
Frederick Taylor
What did the 16th Amendment do?
Authorized congress to enact a graduated income tax
What was vaudeville?
popular form of mass entertainment, comedy, short acts, dance, song, magic etc
Where was asian and mexican immigration the greatest in the early 20th century?
the west
what does the term fordism refer to?
an economic system introduced by henry ford based on mass consumption and mass production
By 1912, how successful was the socialist party?
they had claimed 150,000 due paying members, published hundreds of newspapers, had support from the AFL and many elected officials.
What was not a part of Wilsons 14 points?
African american rights
What was the red scare?
Scare of communism in the U.S period of political intolerance, riots, mass arrests of immigrants.
Why did senators oppose America's participation in the League Of nations?
They thought it threatened their freedom as a country.
What began the great war? Why was it so devastating?
The assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand?
What was the purpose of the committee on public information?
Used every medium to influence public opinion on US participation in war.
What did the 18th amendment prohibit?
Sale, consumption, or distribution of alcohol?
Why were the espionage act and the sedition act considered dangerous?
Espionage act- first law restricting freedom of speech, prohibited spying on those not in conjunction with the draft, also making false statements that might interfere with military actions. Sedition act- forbade the use of "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the united states government/army/etc"
What did W.E.B Du Bois advocate?
He believed education would help fix social problems, especially with blacks.
What did the 19th amendment end?
discrimination at the poles because of gender, gave women the right to vote!
What was the senates decision on the treaty of versailles?
They rejected the treaty because it contained the league of nations which they were afraid would stifle their independence, especially to declare war on other countries.
Who was sentenced to death in a controversial criminal trial in the early 1920s?
Sacco-Vanzetti case where two italian immigrants were arrested and executed for robbery/murder.
What industry was affected by the Hayes codes?
movie industry: prohibited nudity, long kisses, and adultery. also barred scripts that showed criminal activities in a positive way.
What caused the great depression?
Stock market crash on black thursday, unequal distribution of wealth, decline of european demand of american goods after recovery from the war.
Who was involved in the Teapot Dome scandal?
warren g. harding and his cabinet
What was the impact during the 1920's of prohibition?
the introduction of speakeasies and bootleggers, reduced public intoxication and drink-related illnesses. Many saw
Who were the main antagonists in the scopes trial of 1925?
John scopes and charles darwin, fight between christianity and science.
Who were affected by the quotas of the 1924 immigration act?
All of Asia and Europeans
Who were involved in the Harlem Renaissance?
The vibrant black community that involved poetry broadway, black writers, and theaters.
How did the new deal affect government?
Gave the gov. more power and responsibilities. Increased power in the executive branch.
The new deal concentrated power in the hands of what branch of government?
What ultimately ended the great depression?
WW2 and the war bonds that stimulated the economy
what was the sit down strike?
Laborers would sit down in their place of employment so they could not be simply fired and replaced, forced companies to meet their demands.
What is Keynesian economics?
created by john maynard keynes, large scale government spending to stimulate the economy.
What was the scottsboro case?
nine black men arrested for the rape of two white women in alabama with little evidence against them, prison sentences for 5 of them.
What was the America first committee?
Non-interventionst party opposed to us entry in ww2
What prompted women to work in defense industries during the war?
encouragement to be apart of the defense of their country, propaganda (Rosie the riveter), opportunity to be respected and work in jobs they normally couldnt.
What happened to japanese American during internment?
expulsion of all persons of japanese descent from the west coast, 110,000 removed to internment camps, military-style living conditions, did not apply to japanese in hawaii because of need of labor.
What was the double v campaign?
Victory in germany and japan must be accompanied by victory at home, (triumph over segregation, civil rights for blacks)
What was the policy followed by britain and france toward germany of giving concessions in hopes of avoiding war called?
policy of appeasement
What was the "final solution"?
The holocaust
What did the GI bill of rights provide for veterans?
unemployment, college for vocational education, made loans for soldier to buy homes, health care
Who and what benefited from the lend-lease act?
Roosevelt and other countries in a struggle against the axis powers, allowed shipment of food and war supplies to other countries as long as they would return them afterwards.
What were the "zoot suite" riots of 1943?
series of riots that broke out during WWII between marines stationed in los angeles and young latinos recognized in zoot suites. illustrated the limits of wartime tolerance.
What was the purpose of nsc-68?
Document for establishment of massive military in order to contain and combat communism.
What reason did the hollywood ten give for not cooperating with the huac hearings?
violated 1st amendment rights
What region of the world did eisenhower get involved in least?
What was the goal of the march on washington?
to get the support to pass kennedy's civil rights act
What was the purpose of the policy of massive retaliation?
declared that any soviet attack on an american ally would be countered by a nuclear attack on the soviet union itself.
What did republican barry goldwater fear most of american society?
the new deal welfare state which he believed stifled individual independence
What movement did rachel carson's silent spring inspire?
exposed the environmental costs of economic growth, students for a democratic society, anti-DDT campaign
What event marked the turning point in the Vietnam conflict, forcing lyndon b johnson to change course and pull out of the upcoming presidential race?
The TET offensive, a series of surprise attacks by the vietcong
What events did the 1968 kerner report study?
violence that arose caused urban rioting, leading johnson appoint otto kerner to study the causes of the violence and riots. It blamed the violence on segregation and poverty and offered indictment of white racism.
Why was the cuban missile crisis so scary?
American spy planes discovered that the soviet union was installing missiles in cuba capable of reaching the united states with nuclear weapons.
What was LBJ's the great society?
provided health services to the poor and elderly in the new medicaid and medicare programs. New cabinet offices and new agencies were created.
How was malcolm x politics different from martin luther kings?
malcolm x wanted all black control of political and economic resources and did not want to work with the whites for their betterment. king practiced the appeal to american values and working against segregation
What did Nixon's administration do?
created the EPA, occupational safety and health administration, and the national transportation safety board
What sparked the student antiwar protests at kent state that resulted in the deaths of four students by the national guard?
the announcement of america's invasion to cambodia by nixon
What was the result of the three mile island nuclear plant accident?
enhanced nuclear safety precautions, major decline of the use of nuclear construction in following years along with decline of public confidence in nuclear power.
Who was one of the loudest opponents of the equal rights amendment?
Phyllis Schlafly
what was the ultimate result of the watergate scandal?
Nixons resignation as president.
Who was boss tweed?
William Marcy tweed was an american politican who stole millions from new york city tax payers through political corruption.
Who were andrew carnegie and john d Rockefeller?
wealthy men, carnegie created carnegie steel company which later grew into the first billion dollar industry. Rockefeller was successful in the oil industry and was the first billionaire.
What was booker T washington's postion on segregation?
he said to accept segregation and instead focus on individual acceptance and advancement.
Why was eugenics so popular in the 20th century?
to filter out "less desirable people" mentally ill, drug addicted, etc.
Why was margaret sanger so controversial?
she advocated birth control and founded planned parenthood
Which act or organization during the new deal bared commercial banks from becoming involved in the buying and selling of stocks?
The glass-steagall act
what was the program that began in 1942 that allowed experienced mexican agricultural workers to cross the border to work under the government labor contracts called?
the bracero program
What was Churchill speaking of when he spoke of an "iron curtain"?
the boundary across europe that separated the free west from the communist east
What economic theory was reagonomics based on?
supply- side economics, economic policies of Ronald Reagan, the 40th U.S. President (1981-1989), which called for widespread tax cuts, decreased social spending, increased military spending, and the deregulation of domestic markets.
What were FDRS four freedoms?
freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, freedom from fear.
What was william jennings bryan's platform in the 1896 election?
free-silver coinage platform