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Terms in this set (38)
time period in which many people move from intellectual "darkness" to intellectual "light"
it's like one category of the Renaissance that focuses on intellect instead of art
How does the Enlightenment relate to the Renaissance?
- the foundation of the Enlightenment
- the world itself didn't change, but the way we look at it did
2) a culture of questioning
What two things did the Scientific Revolution lead to?
1) returning to the Greek and Latin languages
2) the use of the printing press
3) problems that produced solutions
4) new inventions like the telescope and microscope
5) mathematics (yuck)
What were the five causes of the Scientific Revolution?
the debate concerning the earth and sun's orbits
What was the most popular and controversial topic of the day?
theory that the earth is the center of the solar system and the sun revolves around it
The Greek who made the geocentric theory popular in ancient times
theory that the sun is the center of the solar system and the earth revolves around it
made the earth/sun debate popular by standing up for the heliocentric theory
Sir Isaac Newton
discovered the law of gravity, which was the breakthrough discovery concerning the earth, sun, and many other aspects of our world
the Bible or the RCC
According to Middle Age thinkers, where does a person get knowledge from?
their own minds, using reason and logic
According to Enlightenment thinkers, where does a person get knowledge from?
by using the scientific method, which is a process of experimentation that is used to figure stuff out
According to Enlightenment thinkers, HOW does a person get knowledge?
balance of powers, which is the idea that power should not lie in the hands of just one person or group
What new concept was applied to government during the Enlightenment?
he's the creator of the world and very involved in every aspect of the world and your daily life
According to Middle Age thinkers, what is God's role in the world?
- he's the creator of the world, but after creating it left it to run on its own; this means that God is not involved in your daily life
- this belief is called deism
According to Enlightenment thinkers, what is God's role in the world?
every human being is born with a sin nature, meaning they are naturally inclined to do bad things
According to Middle Age thinkers, what is the nature of human beings?
every human being is born as a "blank slate," meaning they have no natural inclinations and do bad or good based on their environment
According to Enlightenment thinkers, what is the nature of human beings?
the Latin phrase meaning "blank slate"
that people need to be protected from their own choices otherwise they will choose poorly
For Middle Age thinkers, belief in sin nature leads to what belief regarding human decision-making?
that people can be free to make their own decisions based on costs and benefits
For Enlightenment thinkers, belief in "tabula rasa" leads to what belief regarding human decision-making?
ideas spread from the "top" (rich and educated) to the "bottom" (common people)
Explain the "top to bottom" concept regarding how the Enlightenment spread
1) many still couldn't read
2) they didn't have access to Enlightenment information
3) they wouldn't have been able to understand Enlightenment writers
4) they didn't have anyone to discuss Enlightenment ideas with
What limited common people during the Enlightenment?
1) the printing press allows reading to become more common
2) salons gave people a place to discuss Enlightenment idea
What changed that allowed Enlightenment ideas to spread to common people more easily?
the Enlightenment spread like wildfire
What was the result of these changes?
they adopted enlightened absolutism, which both allows them to keep their power and gives some power to the people
What kind of impact did Enlightenment ideas have on monarchs?
1) equality before the law
2) torture begins to disappear
3) freedom of speech
4) freedom of the press
5) freedom of religion
What new freedoms began to emerge in society as a result of the Enlightenment?
1) they want everyone to pay taxes, not just the third estate
2) they want government jobs to be awarded based on talent
3) they want legal equality for all classes
4) they want to take power away from royalty
What kind of changes does the National Assembly want to make?
- Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are freaking out because they might be decapitated
- the National Assembly is freaking out because the economy is still weak and they fear invasion from outside countries
Why is everyone involved freaking out after the National Assembly takes power?
a machine used to decapitate people
- they decapitate him because he tries to run away
- his beheading is a big morale boost for the revolutionaries
Why does the National Assembly decapitate Louis XVI, and what effect does it have?
the revolutionaries fight about what to do, but eventually give power to the Committee of Public Safety
What happens after Louis XVI is decapitated?
Committee of Public Safety
committee established to maintain justice in revolutionary France
the leader of the Committee of Public Safety who was responsible for initiating the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
a period of time in which Robespierre and his henchmen brutally and unjustly murder anyone in France who might be an "enemy" of the revolution
Republic of Virtue
the government Robespierre wants to put in place, in which God is forbidden and people worship logic and reason
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