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APUSH AMSCO Chapter 22 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (39)
In World War I, Great Britain, France, and Russia were known by this name.
In World War I, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire were known by this name.
Germany's greatest hope against British sea power was this new type of warfare.
On May 7, 1915 a British passenger ship was sunk by German torpedoes and 128 American passengers died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, and moved the country towards war.
In March 1916 an unarmed merchant ship, the Sussex, was sunk by the Germans. Germany made a pledge that they would not sink anymore merchant ships without warning. This kept the U.S. out of the war for a little while longer.
Britain controlled the daily war news that was cabled to the United States. They supplied the American press with many stories of German soldier committing atrocities.
election of 1916
Election between Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) and Charles Evans Hughes (Republican). Wilson won the election, his slogan was: "He kept us out of war".
In March 1917, the U.S. newspapers carried the story that Britain had intercepted a telegram from the German government to the Mexican government offering German support if Mexico declared war against the U.S.
The revolution against the autocratic tsarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a republic in March 1917.
war industry boards
During World War I, they set production priorities and established centralized control over raw materials and prices.
During World War I, this government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food for overseas shipment to the troops.
National War Labor Board
During World War I, former president William Howard Taft led this organization, which arbitrated disputes between workers and employers.
Selective Service Act
In 1917, this law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. Men were chosen by lottery. Eventually, 2.8 million were called by lottery, in addition to the nearly 2 million who volunteered.
Committee on Public Information
A propaganda organization that created numerous posters, short films, and pamphlets explaining the war to Americans and encouraging them to purchase war bonds to gain support for World War I.
Head of the Committee on Public Information. He persuaded the nation's artists and advertising agencies to create thousands of paintings, posters, cartoons, and sculptures promoting the war.
In 1917, this law imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty.
In 1918, this law made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens' rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, guaranteed by the First Amendment. About 1000 people were jailed because of the law, one of them was Eugene Debs.
He was one of the founders of the Socialist party that was dedicated to the welfare of the working class. Starting in 1900, he was the Socialist party's presidential nominee in five elections. Around 1920, he was sentenced to ten years in federal prison for speaking out against World War I.
Schenck v. United States
A 1919 Supreme Court case, in which the constitutionality of the Espionage Act was upheld in the case of a man who was imprisoned for distributing pamphlets against the draft. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes said the right to free speech could be limited when it represented a "clear and present danger" to public safety.
migration of blacks and Hispanics
During World War I, many Mexicans crossed the border to take jobs in agriculture and mining. African Americans moved to the North for new job opportunities.
A second revolution in Russia by Bolsheviks (Communists) took it out of World War I.
American Expeditionary Force
In the summer of 1918, hundreds of thousands of American troops went to France as members of this force under General John J. Pershing.
In World War I, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allied Powers and the Central Powers battled each other.
peace without victory
In January 1917, before the U.S. had entered the war, Woodrow Wilson said the the United States would insist on this.
After the end of World War I, President Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace. It called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms, and a general association of nations.
The term for the the four most important leaders (on the Allied side) during Word War I and at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson - United States, David Lloyd George - Great Britain, George Clemenceau - France, and Vittorio Orlando - Italy.
Treaty of Versailles
The World War I peace conference which included the victorious Allied Powers (United States, Great Britain, and France). The defeated Germany agreed to the following terms:
1) Germany had to disarm.
2) Germany had to pay war reparations.
3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing the war.
4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.
5) Germany had to accept French occupation of the Rhineland for 15 years.
6) Territories taken from Germany: Austria-Hungary, and Russia were given their independence (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia)
7) Signers joined the League of Nations which includes Article X; that each member nation would stand ready to protect the independence and territorial integrity of the other nations.
In World War I, territories one controlled by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia were taken by the Allies. Applying the principle of self-determination, independence was granted to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, and Poland; and the new nations of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were established.
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation. However, it was greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join.
The Treaty of Versailles required signers join the League of Nations. The League of Nations charter, Article X, called on each member nation to be ready to protect the independence and territorial integrity of the other nations.
Henry Cabot Lodge
In 1919, after World War I, he led a group of senators known as the "reservationists", who would accept the U.S. joining the League of Nations if certain reservations were added to the agreement. The United States never ratified the Treaty of Versailles nor joined the League of Nations.
In 1919, senators who voted against the Treaty of Versailles because it required the United States to join the League of Nations.
In 1919, senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made. They were led by Henry Cabot Lodge.
After World War I, anti-communist hysteria caused this phenomenon.
Prompted by a series of unexplained bombings, in 1920, this operation was coordinated by Attorney General Mitchell Palmer. Federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organizations in many cities.
Intense or irrational dislike of foreign peoples.
strikes of 1919
Major strike in Seattle where 60,000 unionists held a peaceful strike for higher pay. Boston police went on strike to protest firing of police officers who tried to unionize and Governor Calvin Coolidge sent in National Guard. U.S. Steel Corporation had a strike, after considerable violence, the strike was broken by state and federal troops.
Boston police strike
Officers went on strike to protest the firing of a few officers because they tried to unionize.
The migration of African Americans to the north led to rioting in East St. Louis and Chicago, where 40 people were killed.
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