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Arts and Humanities
Lang. Acq. Exam 2
Terms in this set (66)
the store of word knowledge in an adult's memory. It is the dictionary in the head of each speaker; why we know some words thoroughly and others not as well
what is a word
symbols we use to refer to things. Reference involves words "standing for" their referents: why kids have a holistic view of words because they have not experienced words in different contexts
Lexical development involves...
more than just describing what words children say and when they say them; concerned with development of children's mental lexicons: knowledge inside their heads
between 10-15 months, approximations of words in target language, may be context-bound, no adult-like representations of word meaning, may always be part of routines or language games, and vocab coexists with truly referential words
1st words at 12 months, 4-6 words at 15 months, 20 words at 18 months, and 200-300 words at 24 months. Children acquire about 5 new words daily b/w 1.5 and 6 years of age. 10,000 words at age 6
3 categories of Early Referential Word Use
Context Bound(words only used in certain times/places), Nominal(nouns), and Nonnominal(adjectives, verbs, etc [not nouns]). No child is the same as the next with which categories they obtain
Context vs. Referential
context bound: kid only labels/says a word in specific context; referential: knows word in any situation. Experience is what makes context bound words into referential words
Why are some words context bound and others referent?
Limited experience produces limited understanding. Children seem to not utilize full range of their linguistic experiences. Parents frequently use their child's contest bound words in the same context
not thinking of words in one specific way
2 types of lexical entries
Situations specific and adultlike
words you can say in this particular circumstance. Ex: words you would use in class
words that encoded this meaning and and you can say it whenever you wish to express this meaning. Ex: using imagery or reference words
50 first words
children add words to their vocabs slowly at first but with increasing speech as they approach this mark. Reached around 18 months (15-24 month range) is when children achieve this.
Children's early words can be classified into 6 categories
1) Specific Nominal [name of person; "Mommy"]
2) General nominal [noun/object; "dog"]
3) Action words [verbs; "go"]
4) Modifiers [adjectives; "hot"]
5)Personal/social words [routine/social interaction; "bye-bye", "hi", "thanks"
6) Grammatical Function words [plurals; "balls", possessive; "mommy's", articles; "a, an, the"]
Vocabulary at the 50 word mark
vocabs of younger children are not just smaller versions of older children and adults; they differ in words they contain. Children's first words reflect their experiences. Predominately nouns [45% nouns, 3% verbs], for nouns are more tangible
Word Learning is not simplistic
1) Children learn words even when there is not a strict spatial and temporal occurrence b/w utterance of a word and object being presented.
2) US parents label objects more often then they label actions.
3) Children do not need full complement of sensory abilities to learn words (smell, touch, taste)
4) Children do not need explicit feedback from parents or teachers to learn words.
5) Children do not need ostensive (direct labeling) naming to learn labels for objects
What determines the content of early vocabularies?
Natural Partitions Hypothesis and Relational Relativity Hypothesis
natural partitions hypothesis
nouns are learned earlier because they are more obvious in our environment; verbs are more abstract
why are some words context bound?
limited experience produces limited meanings, parents do not help them understand, and typical routines do not force the child to us words in different contexts
relational relativity hypothesis
within our language, nouns are more constant then verbs b/c verbs have more changes. We do more things to our verbs (modifying morphemes) then we do to our nouns
Child has too narrow of a meaning/representation of a word; Restricts them in labeling. Similar to context bound. Ex: Child has a German Shepherd dog at home and only animals that look like his dog are labeled as dogs. The neighbors Chihuahua does not appear to be a dog to this child.
too broad of a representation of a word; overidentify. Ex: to a child, all animals with four legs must be dogs.
Agent: doer of action, Action: event, Location: place, Possessor: owner ('s), Possession: entity owned, Attribute: characteristic, Entity: inanimate object (no action)
Brown's 8 Relational Meanings 2-word Utterances
Agent + Action; Action + Object; Agent + Object; Action + Location; Entity + Location; Possessor + Possession; Entity + Attribute (only one that can be flipped); Demonstrative + Entity
Agent + Action
action + object
agent + object
action + location
entity + location
possessor + possession
entity + attribute
green ball / soup hot (can be flipped)
demonstrative + entity
Increase in word-learning-rate: word explosion and naming explosion. Children's vocab increases from 8-10 words/day to an average rate of 22-37 words/month at 3-6 years of age range. Children often learn new words after single exposure. Younger than 18 months or with fewer vocabulary are not as good at learning new words because phonological knowledge assists lexical learning
Those who start off with stronger skills, continue to get stronger. The kids with weaker skills won't necessarily get words, but they do not grow as well as the stronger kids. It is because the stronger kids with foundational skills have the capability to build their skills. They can draw from experiences to help them learn.
tier 1 and tier 2 words; broad everyday words
words only known by those in your profession
Breadth of Vocabulary
physical measurement of how many words a child understands and uses. Receptive Vocabulary Measures: Peabody Picture Vocab. Test(PPVT) and Receptive One Word Picture Vocab. Test(EOWPVT). Expressive Vocab. Measures: Expressive Vocab Test(EVT) and Expressive One Word Picture Vocab Test(ROWPVT)
Depth of Vocabulary
associated knowledge one possess about a given word and helps to develop background knowledge. Multidimensional and built over time by repeated encounters with words with repeated exposure and exposure and experiences. Ex: relational vocab., multiple meanings, antonyms, synonyms, semantic associations, and morphology.
Environmental factors related to vocabulary knowledge
richness of semantic information(how new words are introduced [pictures, stories, etc.]), multiple encounters with words(in multiple places and different contexts), Socio-Economic Status(lower income families may not have as many books or parents may not spend as much time reading with kids), and Maternal verbal responsiveness to new vocab.(parents' role of introducing new words)
Child Factors related to vocabulary knowledge
Word memory, storage, and retrieval (cognitive ability), phonological memory(strong in this = easier to attain vocab), speed of language processing(how quickly the child can understand his or her language), personality (shy, introvert children are less likely to practice their speaking with others), and sex differences (up to age 4, females are ahead)
children comprehend words and phrases a lot sooner than they can speak. Comprehension vocabularies are acquired earlier, grow faster than production vocabularies, and have proportionally more verbs.
Process of word learning
The child must identify that sound sequence as a separate word, the child must figure out what the newly encountered word refers to, the child must know what else the word can be used to refer to besides the particular item that is the first referent, and the child must be able to remember what the new word sounded like
child must find word boundaries in continuous stream of speech; stress patterns, intonation, and rhythm; statistical learning; phonotactic probability are language specific cues; child-directed speech properties.
Fast-mapping: children make an initial representation between a new word they hear and its likely meaning (no full representation yet). Children's fast-mapping are not the same things as a complete specifications of a word meaning, just a start
3 Lexical Constraints
Whole-Object Assumption, Mutual Exclusivity Assumption, and Taxonomic Assumption
children rely on adults to label objects as a whole and not its parts. Ex: when holding a mug, you would not say, "look at this handle".
Mutual exclusivity assumption
once an object has a label, it cannot have another. Ex: If the child knows what a cup and a ball are, then when you ask him to grab the spatula, they will pass the ball and cup, and instead grab the unknown object. They utilize previous vocabulary knowledge
when we group things together and also group things semantically. Ex: grouping dogs together, but also associating collars and leashes with the dog group.
Pragmatic Bases of word learning
Principle of Conventionality and principle of contrast
principle of conventionality
Meaning of a word is determined by convention; it has to be agreed upon and observed by all members of the language community. Ex: tables and cups are all called this by everyone.
principle of contrast
different words have various meanings; allows multiple labels for different meanings. Ex: the word "trunk"
Syntax bases of word learning: Syntactic Bootstrapping Hypothesis
once children(aged 3+) have some knowledge about grammar of their language, they can use structure(noun, verb, adjective) to inform them of word meaning. Ex: "The bear is gorping the rabbit." -gorping is a verb
How to measure vocabulary
Type Token Ratio(TTR), Number of different words(NDW) and total number of words(TNW). TTR= NDW/TNW
Type Token Ratio (TTR)
A useful measure of a child's early lexical diversity (Measures, does a child use a variety of words in his spoken vocabulary). Measured as the number of different word types used by child. We want about 0.5; represents appropriate lexical diversity. Those less than 0.5 may indicate a lack of diversity. Because it remains constant across age groups, it is not a developmental measure, although its consistency makes it a valuable clinical tool.
Number of Different Words (NDW)
Representative of the child's expressive vocabulary size and is a more sensitive representation of lexical diversity. Number of words changes with age of child giving this measure developmental power
involves words "standing for" their referents
referential language style
children with more object labels in their vocabularies
expressive language style
children with relatively fewer object labels and more personal/social words
the ability to remember speech sounds briefly
speech is not produced with spaces between the words, the child must find the word boundaries in a continuous stream of sound
indeterminancy of word meaning
Often referred to as the mapping problem; the problem that for any particular instance of a word's use, multiple meanings are possible in the situation
also called lexical principles; limit the possibilities children consider when encountering a new word.
principles about how language is used
Once we know a word, we can not only know that word referred to each time we hear it used, but we also can refer to other things never encountered. Ex: the word dog refers to everything that fits the definition of a dog, not just to all the dogs we have directly experienced.
in learning the lexicons of their language, children must determine which cognitive distinctions are marked in their language and which are not. This level of organizing the world that mediates between cognitive organization and language
acquiring a language includes learning its semantics; learning how meanings are linguistically realized. How children learn the semantics of their language with respect to the lexicon.
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