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alla breve

cut time


the upbeat or pick up to a measure

bar line

lines that separate measures


primary pulse

common time

four four

coumpound meter

beats that divide into threes

cut time

two two


adds to a note half its own value


the motion of the hand down on beat 1 of the pattern


beats are grouped into larger units called


how beats are divided

duple meter

groups into units of 2

quadruple meter

groups into units of 4

triple meter

groups into units of 3

meter signature

AKA time signature establishes the meter and beat unit


represents durations of silence


refers to the duration of pitch and silence (notes and rests) used in a piece

simple meter

beats that divided in two


arcs that connect two or more different pitches affect articulation with blowing and tonguing


rhythmic displacements of expected metrical accents created by dots, ties, rests, dynamic markings or accent marks


speed of the pulse


add the duration of note values together


the upward lift of the hand for the final beat of each measure

beat division

secondary pulse

double dot

add to a note half its rhythmic value plus a quarter of its value

slower tempos

grave, largo, larghetto, and adagio

medium tempos

andantino, adante, moderato, and allegretto

faster tempos

allegro, vivace, presto, prestissimo

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